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Author of Article Austria in Ninth Edition ^Encyclopedia 
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[All rights reserved.] 

' ; Recent events which have had the effect of directing public attention 
to Austria, have revealed the misconception that prevails, even in educated 
circles in this country, respecting her character, position, and policy. 
Little is really known of the nature of her political and social institutions, 
of the extent of her resources, of the amount of her natural productions, of 
the condition of her manufactures, or of her influence for good or for evil 
in the councils of the world. In plain terms, the general public of Great 
Britain are not in possession of correct information upon these matters. 
The consequence is, that the acts of Austria have been distorted, her policy 
has been misrepresented, and her importance under-rated." — Austria: Her 
Position and Prospects, by J. C. Lever. 

"It is not only the public in general that knows very little about the 
Austria of to-day, but very few statesmen indeed are conversant with the 
present state of affairs in that country. Thus many will consider the Empire 
greatly weakened by the loss of the Lombardo- Venetian Kingdom and the 
famous Quadrilateral ; but had Austria lost that kingdom before, and kept her 
soldiers out of the Quadrilateral, the battle of Koniggratz might have taken 
a different turn. Others think that the defeats she has sustained by the 
Prussian Ziindnadelgewehr (needle-gun) have rendered her powerless for 

years to come ; but at Sadowa and Koniggratz Austria was 

taught the crucial lesson that she must arm her soldiers better, find younger 
and fitter generals, and that a sovereign must rely upon the love of his 
people rather than upon a well-drilled machine-like army. There are still 
others who think that the finances of Austria are in so deplorable a state 
that she cannot extricate herself from the unhappy position into which she 
has drifted ; but they forget, or are ignorant of, the fact that the Austrian 
dominions abound in natural riches, and that no other European State can 
vie with them in this respect, and that even now the Austrian subject is less 
taxed than the French. What, however, is least known to the public, and 
but little understood, even by foreign diplomatists and statesmen, is the 
complete change which has taken place in the internal government of the 
country, and, as a necessary corollary, in its politics. Instead of the former 
despotic and bureaucratic, or so-called paternal government, Austria enjoys 
now a free, constitutional, and conservative government." — Austria, a Con- 
stitutional State. 


It is sometimes said that Englishmen as a rule know 
comparatively little of foreign countries ; and of probably 
no other foreign country of the same importance — pre- 
senting so many points of interest to us, or having so 
many claims on our attention, do we actually know so 
little as of Austria of the present day. When we think 
of it, it is rather of the Austria of the past than of the 
present — the Austria of before 1848 or 1866 — the 
absolute monarchy ; the oppressor of nationalities ; the 
suppressor of free institutions, and of nearly every form 
of liberty among its people ; the upholder of harassing 
restrictions against trade, commerce, and industry ; and 
in fine so conservative of everything old and established, 
and so little given to change, as to merit the designation 
of the " China of Europe." 

But these things have passed away, and changes have 
taken place that one could scarcely have believed to be 
possible. Austria now enjoys a constitutional represen- 
tative government, with a responsible ministry ; she has 
free institutions ; her citizens, of whatever class or natio- 
nality, have equal rights and privileges ; and every 


means are taken to reconcile and unite the different 
nationalities, and to establish the government upon its 
only sure basis — the intelligence, good will, and affection 
of the people. An enlightened system of national edu- 
cation has been introduced ; and wise measures are 
adopted to develop the industrial resources of the country 
and to encourage trade and commerce, by removing re- 
strictions of various kinds and opening up means of com- 
munication. A Power undergoing such radical changes, 
and seeking thus to establish itself upon a sure founda- 
tion, cannot fail to be an object of interest ; and it remains 
to be seen how far Austria-Hungary, out of the hete- 
rogeneous elements of which it is composed, will succeed 
in building up a strong and united monarchy. 

Austria-Hungary abounds in natural productions of 
various kinds, which only require time and means to 
develop them. To England she can supply many 
articles of commerce, while at the same time she affords 
an important market for English manufactures. 

The object of the Author, as far as the limits of the 
work would admit, has been to present the English 
reader with a sort of " bird's-eye view" of Austria- 
Hungary as it exists at present ; and in this he trusts 
that he has been in some measure successful. 




Position ; Extent ; Boundaries ; Principal Divisions . . i 


Physical Features; Mountains ; Plains ; Geology ; Rivers; 

Lakes ; &c 4 

Climate ; Flora ; Fauna . . . . . . . .28 

Population ; Races 33 


Languages and Literatures ; Religion ; Education . . 51 

Industries :— Agriculture; Mines ; Manufactures . . 70 


Means of Communication ; Trade and Commerce . . 91 




Government ; Army and Navy ; Finance . . . .100 

Provinces and Principal Towns 109 

Provinces : —Lower Austria (109); Upper Austria (117) 
Salzburg (120) ; Styria (122) ; Carinthia (126) ; Carniola (128) 
Maritime District (Gorz and Gradisca, Istria and Trieste) (130) 
Tyrol and Vorarlberg (135); Bohemia (139); Moravia (148) 
Silesia (152) ; Galicia (154) ; Bukowina (160) ; Dalmatia (162) 
Hungary (166) ; Transylvania (177) ; Croatia- Slavonia (Military 
Frontier) (181) ; Bosnia- Herzegovina (187). 

Principal Towns :— Vienna (in) ; Wiener Neustadt (117) ; 
Linz(ii9); Steyr (120) ; Salzburg (121) ; Gratz (125) ; Marburg 
(126) ; Klagenfurt (127); Laibach (130) ; Trieste (132) ; Gorz 
(134) ; Pola (ib.) ; Pirano(#.) ; Innsbruck (138) ; Trent (139) ; 
Prague (144) ; Pilsen (147); Reichenberg (ib.); Budweis (ib,) ; 
Eger (ib.) ; Briinn (150) ; Iglau (151); Prossnitz (152) ; Olmiitz 
(ib.) ; Troppau (154); Lemberg (158); Cracow (159); Brody 
(ib.) ; Czernowitz (161) ; Zara (164) ; Spalato (165) ; Sebenico 
(ib.); Ragusa (166) ; Buda-Pesth (173); Szegedin (176) ; Press- 
burg (ib.) ; Debreczin (ib.); Temesvar (177) ; Grosswardein (ib.) 
Kronstadt (180); Klausenburg (ib.) ; Hermannstadt (181) 
Agram (186); Essek (ib.) ; Fiume (ib.) ; Bosna-Serai (189) 
Novi-Bazar (190). 

History . . .191 



The River Danube . . . . . . . . . 19 

Fishing on the Theiss . . . . . . . . . 23 

Magyar costumes 43 

A Magyar gentleman on horseback 44 

Sloven peasants 47 

A Serb peasant woman ......... 48 

Young Dalmatian girl 49 

Vienna . . 113 

Pirano 135 

The Adriatic coast 162 

A street in Ragusa ........... 166 

Buda-Pesth . . .173 


Physical Map of Austria-Hungary. 
Political Map of Austria-Hungary. 





Austria-Hungary (in German Oesterreich-Ungarn, French 
Autriche-Hongrie) is an extensive country situated in the 
southern portion of Central Europe, and lying between 42 10' 
and 51° 3' N. latitude, and 9 31' and 26 21' E. longitude. It 
thus extends through almost 9 degrees of latitude, and nearly 17 
degrees of longitude, and has an area of about 240,000 English 
square miles, — nearly a sixteenth part of the entire area of 
Europe. 2 In regard to extent, it ranks third among the coun- 
tries of Europe, being surpassed only by Russia, and Sweden and 
Norway. It exceeds in size the German Empire by about 
32,000, and France by more than 36,000 square miles. With 
a population estimated at 38,000,000 in 1878, it is behind 
Russia and the German Empire, but somewhat in advance 

1 An imperial order, of date 14th Nov., 1868, enjoined that the names 
Austria- Hungary and the Austro- Hungarian Monarchy, be employed in 
place of Austria and the Austrian Empire in all official and public docu- 
ments ; and since that time they have come into general use. 

2 We do not include here the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
which Austria- Hungary has entered upon the ' ' occupation " and " admi- 
nistration" of, in accordance with the Berlin Treaty of 13th July, 1878. 
According to a census taken in 1879, these territories have an area of 
24,247 square miles, and a population of 1, 142, 147. See Chapter IX. 



of France. Politically it is one of the Five Great Powers of 
Europe, — the others being England, France, Russia, and 

As a country, Austria-Hungary lies very compact, somewhat in 
the form of a trapezium, with the exception of a long narrow strip 
of land, extending for several hundred miles in a south easterly 
direction along the Adriatic and forming Dalmatia, and a pen- 
tagonal projection westward, constituting Tyrol and Vorarlberg. 
Its greatest length from east to west is 810, and its greatest 
breadth from north to south 667 miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Saxony, Prussia, and Russian Poland ; west by Russia, 
and the newly formed principality of Roumania; south by 
Roumania, the principality of Servia, the territories of Bosnia 
and Herzegovina, Montenegro, the Adriatic Sea, and the king- 
dom of Italy; and west by Switzerland, the principality of 
Liechtenstein, and the kingdom of Bavaria. It is thus sur- 
rounded on all sides by foreign countries except where it 
borders on the Adriatic, which forms its boundary for about 
1040 miles, or about one-fifth of its entire boundaries. In 
addition to this the islands belonging to it have sea boundaries 
amounting in all to about 1380 miles, and the Lake of Con- 
stance forms its boundary on the west for fourteen miles. Of 
the land boundaries amounting in all to 4310 miles, 720 miles 
are towards Russia, 658 towards Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
630 Roumania, 620 Bavaria, 520 Italy, 420 Prussia, 262 
Saxony, 238 Servia, and 198 Switzerland. The boundaries are 
formed in some parts by the courses of rivers as the Unna 
Save and Danube in the south, the Rhine and Inn in the west, 
and the Vistula in the north ; in other parts by mountain ranges 
as the Tyrolese Alps in the south-west, the Bohemian Forest, 
the Erzgebirge, and Riesengebirge in the north-west, and the 
Carpathians in the south-east; and sometimes they extend 
through an open country. From the extent of its land boun- 
daries, and the want in many parts of strong natural defences, 
the country is particularly liable to hostile invasion, and has on 
several occasions witnessed its capital besieged (as in 1529, and 


again in 1683 by the Turks), and twice in the hands of the 
enemy (i. e. the French in 1806 and 1809). 

The present Austro-Hungarian Monarchy embraces a 
number of different countries and territories, which have 
from time to time been added to the original duchy of Austria, 
— raised in the middle of the 12th century, from an earlier 
margraviate of the same name. It comprises the kingdoms 
of Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia, Dalmatia, and Croatia-Slavonia ; 
the principality of Transylvania; the archduchies of Lower 
and Upper Austria ; the duchies of Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, 
Carniola, Bukowina, and Silesia ; the margraviates of Moravia 
and Istria ; and the counties of Tyrol and Vorarlberg, and 
Gorz and Gradisca. 

Perhaps the clearest idea of the relative position of the differ- 
ent parts of Austria- Hungary may be obtained, by considering 
Hungary as a centre, and regarding the various divisions as they 
group themselves round it. Then on the S.E. of Hungary, is 
Transylvania, N. of this Bukowina, and still farther N.. and 
forming the boundary of Hungary on the N.E., the extensive 
country of Galicia. On the N. of Hungary is Silesia, N.W. 
Moravia and Lower Austria, W. Styria, and S.W. Croatia 
and Slavonia. Forming, as it were, an outer range, west- 
ward, of these last, we have Bohemia on the N.W. of Mora- 
via and Lower Austria, Upper Austria W. of Lower Austria, 
and Salzburg, Carinthia and Carniola W. of Styria. Finally, 
we have Tyrol and Vorarlberg in the extreme W., bordering 
on Salzburg and Carinthia; Gorz and Gradisca, and Istria 
in the S.W., adjoining Carniola and Croatia, and also washed 
by the Adriatic; and lastly, Dalmatia, on the extreme S., 
extending in a S.E. direction from Croatia, along the 

B 2 




Austria-Hungary is, after Switzerland, the most mountainous 
country in Europe. About three-fourths of its surface is moun- 
tainous or hilly, the rest being made up of valleys and plains, 
and some of the latter are of great extent. The mountains 
belong to three great systems, — the Alps, the Hercynian moun- 
tains, and the Carpathians. The Alps occupy the S.W. por- 
tion of the country, and comprise its loftiest summits. They 
enter from Switzerland, and spread themselves over Tyrol 
and Vorarlberg, Salzburg, the portions of Upper and Lower 
Austria lying S. of the Danube, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Gorz 
and Istria, and penetrate even into Croatia, Slavonia, and Dal- 
matia. In the S.W. they have a steep descent to the plains 
of Venetian Lombardy; in the S.E. they assume the form of 
terraces, while towards the N.E. they descend in a less regular 
fashion through a series of hills to the valley of the Danube. 
Beyond the Danube rise the Hercynian mountains, under 
which term are comprised the several mountain ranges of 
Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and the northern portions of Upper 
and Lower Austria. The Carpathians lie eastward of the 
rivers March and Oder, which separate them from the Hercy- 
nian mountains, while the valley of the Danube separates them 
from the Alps. They rise near Pressburg on the latter river, 
and describe a great curve, bounding Hungary on the N. W., N., 
and N.E., and Transylvania on the E. and S., and terminating 
at Orsova on the Lower Danube, which here separates them 


from the northern spurs of the Balkan range. Between the 
offshoots of the Alps on the one side, and the Carpathians on 
the other, lie the great plains of Hungary. 

An idea of the relative height of the different parts of the 
country will be obtained if we imagine, with a German Geo- 
grapher, a series of horizontal sections to be made of the surface 
at the heights of 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000, and 12,000 
Paris feet, above the sea. 1 The first section will present to us 
the country rising gradually from the low-lying lands of the S. 
stretching along the river valleys and comprehending the great 
plains of Hungary, and 'other low-lying tracts. In the N. it is 
only penetrated by the rivers Elbe and Vistula. The next 
section at 1000 feet, comprises the lower parts of the Bohemian 
Basin, the Moravian, Austrian, Hungarian, and Croatian hilly 
country, the interior valleys of Transylvania, the plain of 
Galicia, and the upper course of the Danube. In the third 
section are included the higher terraces of Southern Bohemia 
and Western Moravia, the elevated plains of Galicia, the 
lower declivities of the Alps, and the troughs or basins of the 
Karst. The fourth section at 4000 feet, will present a great 
number of elevations, forming, as it were, islands on the sur- 
face, but the loftier mountain ranges will still appear as com- 
pact masses. In the fifth section these show themselves very 
much broken up with the exception of the central range of 
the Alps. The next section at 12,000 feet will contain all the 
loftiest summits of the country with the exception of the Ortler 
Spitze in Tyrol, which rises to the height of 12,025 Paris or 
12,814 English feet. 

The A/ps, the most extensive and loftiest mountain system 
of Europe, extend in the form of a great curve, open towards the 
S. from the Gulf of Genoa eastward to the middle Danube 
and the Adriatic. They lie between 43 and 48 N. latitude 

1 A Paris foot exceeds an English foot by .06576, which makes the 
equivalents of the above sums 533, 1066, 2132, 4265, 8531, and 12,789 
English feet respectively. Hence while only one summit is over 12,000 
Paris feet in height, there are several over 12,000 English feet. 


(midway between the Equator and the North Pole) and ex- 
tend from about 5° 10' to 18 10' E. longitude. They are 
bounded on the S. by the Gulf of Genoa, the plains of Lom- 
bardy, and the Adriatic ; on the N. by the Rhine, the Lake 
of Constance, the elevated plains of Bavaria, and the Danube ; 
and they stretch from the Rhone in the S.E. of France, 
eastward to the Danube, in Hungary. They are estimated 
to cover in all an area of about 77,500 square miles, of which 
about 33,500 square miles are in Austria, an extent greater 
than that contained in any other country. Nor are the Aus- 
trian Alps deficient in those striking features for which these 
mountains are so famous. On the contrary there are portions 
of them that for beauty and grandeur are not surpassed by 
any other part of the Alps. " Sir Humphry Davy declared 
that he knew no country to be compared in beauty of scenery 
with the Austrian Alps. ' The variety of the scenery, the 
verdure of the meadows and trees, the depths of the valleys, 
and the altitudes of the mountains, the clearness and grandeur 
of the rivers and lakes give it, I think, a decided superiority 
over Switzerland/ " {Murray's Handbook.) Like Switzerland, 
Austria has its lofty peaks with rugged bare and precipitous 
sides, its snow-crowned summits, its glaciers, its cascades, and 
its avalanches. 

The Alps are naturally divided by deep depressions, and 
river-courses into three principal groups, known as the Western 
Middle, and Eastern Alps. Of these the whole of the Eastern 
and a portion of the Middle Alps are included in Austria. 
The Brenner Pass is considered as forming part of the line 
of separation between these two groups. Another natural 
division is into three parallel ranges, the middle or central 
range, and the northern and southern ranges. These are not 
only separated from each other by longitudinal valleys and 
depressions, but they are also geologically distinct, the central 
range being composed of crystalline rocks, as granite, gneiss, 
and mica-schist, while the northern and southern ranges are 
of limestone, the southern range also containing porphyry. 


The limit of perpetual snow varies considerably in different 
parts of the Alps, being in some about 8000, in others not 
much less than 9500 feet, above the level of the sea. 

The principal Alpine ranges in Austria are the Rhaetian, 
Noric, Carnic, Julian, and Dinaric Alps. The Rhcetian Alps 
enter Tyrol from the Swiss Canton of the Grisons, and traverse 
the country in three principal chains. The northern chain or 
range extends from the Rhine eastward to the Inn, and is 
separated from the central range by a deep depression formed 
by the valleys of the Inn and the 111. In height, the summits of 
this range are inferior to those of the other two, only a few 
of them rising to 9000 feet. The central range extends east- 
ward through Tyrol to the Dreiherrenspitze on the borders of 
Salzburg and Carinthia. It is bounded by the Inn, the 
Adige, the Eisack, and the Rienz, and forms the watershed 
between the affluents of the Danube on the one side, and 
those of the Adige and the Drave on the other. Its summits 
are mostly covered with snow and ice, which in many parts 
form glaciers, some of them, as the Oetzthaler Ferner, being of 
great size. Several of its peaks rise to the height of 12,000 
feet. This range is crossed by the celebrated Brenner Pass, 
at the height of 4485 feet, — the lowest of all the Alpine passes, 
and which from a remote period has afforded the easiest way 
of communication between Germany and Northern Italy. A 
railway carried over this pass was opened in 1867, and esta- 
blishes communication between Innsbruck and Botzen. The 
southern range of the Rhaetian Alps occupies the southern 
portion of Tyrol, and contains the loftiest summits of Austria, 
the highest being the Ortler Spitze, rising, as we have said, 
to the height of 12,814 feet above the sea. The deep trans- 
verse valley of the Adige divides this range into two groups, 
the Ortler and the Trientiner Alps. The former occupies the 
S.W. portion of Tyrol, between the Adda and the Adige, and 
contains several of the highest peaks in the country. The 
scenery here is wild and romantic. The fantastic forms, 
he wild confusion, the rugged peaks, the snow-crowned sum- 


mits, all combine to render this one of the most striking 
portions of Alpine scenery. Here is the famous Stelvio 
Pass (Stilfser Jock), the highest carriage road in Europe, 
being 9176 feet above the sea. It was constructed by the 
government in 1820-25, amid engineering difficulties of the 
greatest magnitude, and traverses scenery of the greatest 
magnificence. It leads from Glurns on the Austrian side, to 
Bromio on the Italian. 

The Trientiner Alps occupy the S.E. portion of Tyrol, from 
the valley of the Adige, to the sources of the Piave. The 
mountains here do not attain to the same elevation as 
those of the Ortler group, none being probably over 11,000 
feet, but the same kind of scenery prevails. An experienced 
Alpine traveller speaking of this region says, — " Nowhere else 
in the Alps do the peaks rise so abruptly, and with so little 
apparent connexion, and nowhere are the contrasts depending 
on differences of geological structure so marked as those which 
strike the mere passing traveller, w T hen, beside rounded masses 
of red and black porphyry, he sees white and pink crystalline 
dolomite limestone rising in towers and pinnacles, of extra- 
ordinary height and steepness. Dolomite limestone is found 
in many other parts of the Alps, but nowhere else is it de- 
veloped on so grand a scale, and the exquisite beauty of this 
region has of late years led an increasing number of travellers 
to spots that before were scarcely known even to the inhabi- 
tants of the adjoining valleys." (J. Ball.) 

The Noric Alps are a direct continuation of the central 
range of the Rhaetian Alps, and present the same leading 
features. They extend from the Dreiherrenspitze eastward 
through Salzburg, Styria, Northern Carinthia, Upper and 
Lower Austria, to Hungary, where they gradually sink into 
the plains. They have the Danube on the N., and the Drave 
on the S. The principal range is divided into the Greater and 
Lesser Tauern, which are again subdivided into several smaller 
groups. Glaciers are found on the highest mountains, some of 
which, as the Pasterze on the Grossglockner, are of great 


size. A number of the summits rise to the height of 11,000 
and 12,000 feet, as the Grossglockner (12,455), Gross Vendiger 
(12,053), Wiesbachhorn (11,738), Dreiherrenspitze (11,424). 
The railway from Vienna to Gratz, crosses this range at the 
Semmering Pass. It was an engineering work of great diffi- 
culty — the line being carried along the face of precipices, 
through tunnels, and over bridges of great height. In the Pass 
a tunnel about a mile in length at the height of 2894 feet, saves 
a farther ascent of 362 feet. 

Two offshoots of this range extend northward ; the one in 
Salzburg, and known as the Salzburger Alps, the other in 
Styria and the duchies of Austria, and distinguished as the 
Styria-Austrian Alps. Though none of the summits here rise 
to the height of 10,000 feet, the glaciers are more numerous 
than might be expected. Among the mountains too are found 
numerous beautiful and picturesque valleys. The loftiest 
peaks are the Dachstein (9845) and the Schneeberg (9292). 

The Caniic or Carinthian Alps lie to the S. of the Noric 
Alps, and are a continuation of the Trientiner group of the 
Rhaetian Alps, running eastward. They extend from the 
upper courses of the Drave and the Piave to those of the 
Save and the Isonzo, and together with their branches occupy 
the S.E. portion of Tyrol, Carinthia, and the N. portion of 
Carniola. They give off several branches, and two or three 
of their summits rise to over 9000 feet, the loftiest being the 
Terglou (9371). 

The Julian or Carniolan Alps are a continuation of the 
Carnic Alps, and extend from the Terglou in a S.E. direction 
through Carniola and Croatia. They form the termination 
of the Alps in this direction, and have but little of an Alpine 
character, none of their summits with one or two exceptions, 
rising over 5000 feet in height. Lying S. of this range, in 
Carniola and Istria is a desert limestone tract of elevated 
country known as the Karst It contains few elevations over 
4000 feet, but many depressions or hollows, and has numerous 
subterranean Caverns and subterranean water-courses, though 


the surface is very deficient in water. In it is the celebrated 
grotto or cavern of Adelsberg (the most noted in Europe) 
which extends for about 2§ miles under ground, and comprises 
a number of very spacious chambers. 

The Dinaric Alps extend through Croatia and Dalmatia, 
and are for the most part bare and rugged, and deficient in 
water. They bear little resembrance to the Alps, and are 
sometimes regarded as not forming a part of them. They 
resemble more the region of the Karst, and hence that term 
is sometimes used in an extended sense to include them. 
Mount Dinara, from which they take their name, is 5956 feet 
above the sea. 

The Hercynian Mountains is a general term used to include 
the several mountain ranges of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and 
the northern portion of Upper and Lower Austria. The 
principal ranges included in it are the Bohemian Forest, 
Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge and the Sudetes. They have no 
great elevations, but are of considerable extent, occupying 
an area of about 32,000 square miles, and are the most densely 
populated region of the country. 

The Bohemian Forest '■ (Bohmerwald) forms the S.W. boundary 
of Bohemia towards Bavaria. It extends from the river 
Eger in a S.E. direction to the Danube, and forms the water- 
shed between the affluents of the latter river and those of the 
Moldau which falls into the Elbe. This mountain range is 
abont 140 miles in length, and with its offshoots covers an area of 
over 4000 square miles. It is composed of gneiss and granite, 
and presents a variety of ridges, crests, and solitary peaks, but 
in general the heights are soft and rounded, not rugged and 
steep. Ridges of less elevation run parallel with the main 
chain between which stretch wide longitudinal valleys, com- 
municating here and there by means of transverse valleys and 
mountain gorges. The mountains are lowest in the N.W. 
and become gradually higher towards the S.E. but the loftiest 
summit is only 4550 feet above the sea. 

The Erzgebirge or Ore Mountain Range, so called from its 


richness in ores, extends along the border of Bohemia sepa- 
rating it from Saxony ; and from its commencement near the 
sources of the White Elster to the Elbe, it has a length of 
about 90 miles. It is composed of gneiss, mica, and clay- 
slate, with great masses of granite and porphyry and smaller 
blocks of greenstone and basalt interspersed. Among its ores 
the principal are those of silver, iron, copper, and tin, and it 
has also numerous mineral springs among which those of 
Teplitz, Karlsbad, and Franzensbad are world famous. The 
soil in general is not fertile, but here and there spots of great 
fertility occur. None of its summits exceed 4000 feet in 
height. The range has a gradual descent towards Saxony, but 
it falls more steeply and rapidly on the Bohemian side. 

The Riesengebirge or Giant Mountain Chain forms the N.E. 
boundary of Bohemia towards Prussia. It has a gentle 
declivity towards Bohemia, but a steep descent on the side of 
Prussia. It contains the loftiest summits of the Hercynian system 
the principal being the Schneekoppe or Riesenkoppe 5248, 
and the Great Rad 4920 feet above the sea. The chain 
consists chiefly of granite and mica-schist, and though its 
mineral wealth is considerable, it is in this respect inferior to 
the Erzgebirge. The scenery in many parts is wild and 
desolate, and has given rise to many sagas. The western ex- 
tremity forms part of that beautiful and romantic region on 
the Elbe known as "Saxon Switzerland." 

The Sudetes is a term sometimes applied in an extended 
sense to the whole of the mountain system lying between 
the Oder and the Elbe, and thus including the Riesengebirge. 
In a more restricted sense, however, it is confined to that 
range which extends from the Oder to the March, between 
Moravia and Silesia. It is composed chiefly of granite, gneiss, 
and mica-schist, and its highest point, the Spieglitzer Schnee- 
berg, is 4774 feet above the level of the sea. A low mountain 
range forms the boundary between Bohemia and Moravia, 
The interior of Bohemia thus forms a kind of basin, being 
shut in on all sides by mountain ranges. The lowest part is 


the valley through which the Elbe takes its course and which 
is from 400 to 800 feet above the sea. From this the land 
rises, on all sides, in the form of terraces. 

The Carpathians ', form the most extensive mountain 
system in Austria-Hungary, for while much inferior to the Alps 
in elevation, they cover more than twice the area that the Alps 
occupy in the country, or about 72,000 square miles. With 
the exception of their S.E. and S. declivities which are in 
Roumania, they are entirely within the Monarchy. They rise 
near Pressburg at the commencement of the Middle Danube, 
describe a great curve open towards the S.W. and encircling 
Hungary and Transylvania on the N.W., N., N.E., E., and S.E., 
and terminate at Orsova on the Lower Danube having thus a 
length of about 800 miles. They traverse, with their offshoots, 
Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Hungary, Bukowina, Transylvania, 
and the Banat of Hungary. They are divided into three 
principal groups, the Hungarian Carpathian Highlands in 
the N.W., the Transylvanian Highlands in the S.E., and the 
Carpathian Waldgebirge or Forest Mountain range which 
connects the one with the other. The two former bear a 
considerable resemblance to each other, being extensive 
mountain masses, consisting of several groups ; the latter is 
much less elevated, and is composed of ridges of mountains. 

The Hungarian Carpathian Highlands extend from W. to E. 
for about 200 miles through Hungary, Moravia, Silesia, and 
Galicia, and have a breadth from N. to S. of about 120 miles. 
They are bounded on the W. by the Oder, the Beczwa, and the 
March, the Dunajec,the Poprad, and the Hernad, N. by the 
Vistula, and S. by the plains of Hungary. They are composed 
of several groups of which the principal are, the Little Car- 
pathians extending from the Danube northward to the Beczwa, 
and having on the W. the March, and on the E. the Waag, 
the highest point being Javornik, 3489 feet above the sea; 
the Beskides stretching from the Beczwa, to the Poprad and 
Dunajec, divided into the Western and Eastern Beskides by 
the Jablunka Pass 1950 feet high, through which the railway 


from Oderberg to Sillein now passes, and having as their 
loftiest peaks the Babia-gora (5620), and the Lissa-hora 
(4420) • and the Tatra group or Central Carpathians, on the N. 
border of Hungary between the sources of the Arva, Waag, 
Poprad, and Dunajec. These last are the loftiest of the Carpa- 
thians, having a general elevation of more than 6000 feet, while 
several of their summits are over 8000 feet, as the Gerlsdorfer 
Spitze (8650), Eisthaler Thurm (8629), and the Lomnitzer 
Spitze (8400). In character they resemble the Alps more 
than the Carpathians, and though for a few weeks in the 
height of summer their summits are free from snow, it lies 
perpetually in their clefts and chasms. The scenery here is 
remarkably wild and bleak, characterized by lofty peaks with 
rugged precipitous sides, deep fissures and gorges, and 
numerous lakes surrounded by rocky sides. This group has 
a length of only about 22 miles, with an average breadth of 
from 5 to 7. The Fatragebirge, or the Hungarian Erzgebirge, 
so called from its richness in metals, lies between the valleys 
of the Gran, and the Waag, and has as its highest point the 
Great Fatra, about 5400 feet in height. 

The Carpathian Waldgebirge extends in a S.E. direction 
from the Dunajec, the Poprad, and the Hernad, to the sources 
of the Viso and the Bistritza, having on the S. and S.W. the 
great plain of Hungary, and on the N. and N.E. the elevated 
plains of Galicia with the Vistula, the San, and the Dniester. 
It has a length of over 200 miles, with an average breadth 
of about 45, in Hungary, Galicia, and Bukowina. The descent 
is somewhat steep towards Hungary, but more gradual on 
the side towards Galicia. It consists chiefly of transverse 
ridges of moderate elevation and for the most part wooded, 
without any great connecting chain, and having numerous 
transverse valleys through which waters flow S. to the Theiss, 
N. to the Vistula, and N.E. to the Dniester. The general height 
is from 3000 to 4000 feet, rising in some parts to 6000, while 
the loftiest summit Mount Pietrosa reaches 7000 feet. 

The Transylvanian Highlands occupy the whole of Transyl- 


vania and a portion of Hungary, and cover an area of about 
39,000 square miles. They have the great plain of Hungary 
on the W. and N., the plains of Moldavia and the Sereth on 
the E., and the plains of Wallachia on the S. On all the 
four sides they form lofty ranges of mountains. The Eastern 
range extends from the sources of the Viso and Bis- 
tritza to the Boza, and has an average height of 5000 feet, — 
Mount Piatra its highest point being about 6600 feet. The 
Southern range, otherwise called the Transylvanian Alps, ex- 
tends from the Boza westward to the Danube at Orsova. It 
rises abruptly from the plains of Wallachia, having an average 
height of 6000 feet, while several of its summits are over 8000. 
In the Banat portion of this range are the celebrated hot springs 
of Mehadia, which were known to the Romans. The Western 
range or the Transylvanian Erzgebirge extends noithward from 
the Danube to the Szamos, with an average height of 4000 feet, 
— its highest summit, Bahar, having 5900 feet. It abounds in 
minerals of various kinds. The Northern range from the 
Szamos to the sources of the Viso and Bistritza has an 
average height of 5000 feet, its extreme point being 7500. The 
interior of Transylvania, which has a general elevation of from 
1000 to 1500 feet, is traversed in different directions by river 
valleys which are generally narrow, but which occasionally open 
out into plains of some extent, — these valleys being separated 
from each other by mountain ranges, sometimes of considerable 
elevation. The principal of these ranges is the Hargitta, which 
runs parallel to the Eastern range, from which it is separated 
by a wide and deep valley, through which the Maros flows 
northward, and the Aluta southward. This range attains the 
height of 5500 feet. 

Plains. — A considerable portion of the surface of the country 
consists of extensive plains. The largest of these is the Great 
Plain of Hungary, which comprises a large portion of the area 
of that country, extending from the Carpathian Mountains on 
the N. to the Danube on the S., and from the mountain range 
of the Bakony Forest on the W. to the Transylvanian High- 


lands on the E. It has an area of about 38,000 square miles, 
and a general elevation of from 150 to 200 feet above the level 
of the sea, rising in some parts to 400 or 500 feet. In some 
places it is of great fertility, and, as in the Banat, produces ex- 
cellent crops of wheat and other products ; in others, it is no 
better than a barren sandy waste. Extensive marshes also 
occur in the low-lying districts along the banks of the rivers, 
particularly of the Theiss, Temes, Koros, and Danube. The 
Little Hungarian Plain stretches from the Bakony Forest west- 
ward into Lower Austria and Styria, embracing the valley of 
the Danube from Pressburg to Gran. It has an area of 3400 
square miles, and an average elevation of about 360 feet above 
the sea level. In the N. it is generally fertile, but in the S. 
and W. it is for the most part barren and sandy, or marshy. In 
the E., in the neighbourhood of the Bakony Forest, occur parts 
of great natural beauty. The Galician Plain, which comprises 
the greater part of that country, is rather an undulating plateau 
than a plain, being traversed in different directions by ranges 
of hills. It includes the valleys of the Vistula and Dniester, 
and of their affluents, the San, Bug, and Sereth. Its general 
elevation is from 750 to 800 feet, rising in some parts to over 
1000, and it has an area of 19,000 square miles. It is for the 
most part fertile, but includes also large barren sandy tracts 
and marshes. The Croatia-Slavonian Plain extends along the 
Drave and Save, and has an area of about 3000 square miles. 
It produces abundant grain crops. The Vienna Plain or Basin 
extends westward from the Little Carpathians and the Leitha 
Mountains along both sides of the Danube, and has in its centre 
the capital Vienna. It has an area of about 1440 square miles, 
and an average elevation of 500 feet. The Tulner Basin, so 
called from the town of Tuln, which is situated in it, is the 
smallest and highest of the plains of the Danube, having an 
area of about 200 square miles, and an average elevation of 560 
feet. In addition to these, considerable plains occur along the 
courses of certain of the larger rivers, as the Drave, Save, Mur, 
Elbe, &c. 


Geology.—- The great central chain of the Alps is composed 
of crystalline rocks, principally gneiss, with in less measure 
mica-schist, granite, and syenite, — the gneiss in some parts 
containing gold and copper. Frequently the gneiss is overlaid 
by transition rocks, as clay-slate and transition limestone, and 
in these large deposits of iron ore are found. North of the 
central chain is a range of transition rocks, which the organic 
remains contained in them show to belong partly to the Silurian 
and Devonian systems, partly to the carboniferous and trias 
formations. In the S. the transition rocks appear as isolated 
groups, being broken up by masses of syenitic granite and red 
porphyry, with red sandstone and dolomite. The northern 
limestone range of the Alps is formed of Jurassic or Oolitic 
limestone and Muschelkalk, with here and there considerable 
deposits of chalk. Its northern border is of sandstone with 
subordinate layers of limestone and clay-slate. In the 
southern limestone Alps, the limestone rests upon gneiss, 
which crops out in some places. In the western division, only 
detached portions of the chalk formation show themselves, but 
in the eastern, it generally prevails, extending also through the 
Maritime District and Dalmatia. In several parts of this range, 
iron, copper, zinc, and lead ores are found, and at Idria, there 
is a rich deposit of quicksilver. 

The Bohemian Forest is composed of crystalline rocks, 
among which gneiss predominates, and the like holds true in 
regard to the Erzgebirge. The Elbgebirge is formed of free- 
stone or greensand w T ith the corresponding marl, and lime- 
stone. The Sudetes are principally composed of crystalline 
rocks, with here and there masses of basalt. Rich mines of 
silver and lead are worked at Pribram and other parts, also 
mines of iron and tin. Coal is found in many places. 

The central chain of the Carpathians is formed chiefly of 
gneiss and granite, with clay-slate, transition limestone, trachyte, 
basalt, and diorite. Among these also frequently occur exten- 
sive areas covered by tertiary formations. N. and S. of this 
are ranges of sandstone mountains, on which diluvial and allu- 


vial deposits are also found. The northern sandstone range is 
rich in salt, while the central chain abounds in iron and 
copper ore, and the gneiss and granitic rocks in Hungary and 
Transylvania are rich in ores of gold and silver. Numerous 
beds of coal are also found in the later formations. At Cracow 
appears Jurassic limestone, and in the N.E. of Galicia are chalk 
marl and white chalk, which, entering from the N., traverse 
the country. 

The hilly and flat portions of the country are of tertiary and 
diluvial formations, which frequently occur also in the valley 
basins of the three great mountain systems. The low lying 
country between the outermost declivities of the three mountain 
systems belongs throughout to the middle tertiary or miocene 
period. In Upper Austria it consists principally of marly 
sandstone, with subordinate layers of marl. In the Vienna 
and Hungarian basins, marl, clay, and sand form the principal 
portion, and coarse limestone also occurs. The Transylvanian 
basin is for the most part made up of sandstone and clay 
marl. The Bohemian tertiary basin belongs more particularly 
to the Pliocene period. The Galician plain consists mostly of 
sand, sandstone, and coarse limestone, resting partly on chalk, 
chalkmarl, and gypsum, partly on diluvian limestone. 

In the great variety of its mineral products, Austria-Hungary 
is unsurpassed by any other country in Europe. Except 
platinum, there are none of the useful metals that are not 
found here, and many of them are in abundance. Besides the 
precious metals, gold and silver, it abounds in ores, more or 
less rich, of iron, copper, lead, and tin ; while in less abundance 
are found zinc, antimony, quicksilver, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, 
manganese, bismuth, chromium, uranium, and tellurium. Coal 
and salt exist in almost inexhaustible quantities, and there are 
also sulphur, alum, saltpetre, petroleum, asphalt, graphite, mar- 
ble, roofing-slate, gypsum, porcelain earth, and potters' clay. 
Among the precious stones found here may be mentioned the 
Hungarian opal and the Bohemian garnet, which are famous ; 
in addition to which are the agate, beryl, ruby, sapphire, car- 



nelian, calcedony, topaz, jasper, amethyst, chrysolite, and many 

Rivers. — As the highlands of Austria-Hungary form part of the 
great watershed of Europe, which divides the waters flowing 
northward into the North Sea or Baltic, from those flowing south- 
ward or eastward into the Mediterranean or the Black Sea, its 
rivers flow in three different directions— northward, southward 
and eastward. With the exception of the small streams be- 
longing to it which fall into the Adriatic, all its rivers have 
their mouths in other countries, »and its principal river, the 
Danube, has also its source in another country. Of the waters 
of Austria-Hungary by far the greater portion falls into the 
Black Sea, the Danube alone draining about 73.5 per cent, of 
the entire area of the country. The territory so drained, in- 
cludes the northern portion of Tyrol and a part of Vorarl- 
berg, Salzburg, Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, 
Carniola, the greater part of Moravia, nearly the whole of 
Hungary, Croatia and Slavonia, Transylvania, Bukowina, and 
Eastern Galicia (by the Dniester). The region drained 
into the Adriatic, includes the southern portion of Tyrol, 
Gorz and Gradisca, Istria, a portion of Croatia, and Dal- 
matia. The rivers here are all small, with the exception of 
the Adige. The Rhine drains a portion of Vorarlberg, and the 
Elbe, Bohemia and a small portion of Lower Austria into the 
North Sea. The Oder conveys the waters from Silesia and a 
portion of Moravia, and the Vistula from the western half 
and a small portion of the eastern half of Galicia, into the 
Baltic. The Elbe drains 9.3 per cent, of the area of the coun- 
try, the Vistula, 6.7, the Dniester 5.6, the Adige 1.9, and the 
other rivers together, 2.6. The country is on the whole, well 
supplied with streams, and the navigable length of the various 
rivers within the territory exceeds 4000 miles. 

The Danube (Donau), which after the Volga is the largest 
river of Europe, is pre-eminently the river of the country. Of 
its entire course of 1770 miles, 846 miles are in this territory, 
and of the 310,000 square miles drained by it 177,000 are in 


Austria-Hungary. It flows from W. to E. through the entire 
length of the country, and not only affords the means of com- 
mercial intercourse between the different places on its banks, 
but through its numerous tributaries, many of which are of 
great size and navigable for long distances, it has communi- 
cation with most parts of the country. In addition to this 
internal intercourse, a considerable foreign trade is carried 
on by means of it with Germany on the one side and Servia, 
Roumania, Turkey, and Russia on the other. 

The region drained by the Danube is more enclosed by 
high mountains than that by any other great river of Europe. 
On the S. are the Alps and the Balkans, and on the N. the 
Hercynian mountains and the Carpathians. In some parts these 
come up quite close to the banks of the river, and in several 
occasion rapids which impede the navigation by small boats, 
but present no obstacles to steamers, except the last— the Iron 
Gate, where the river leaves the country and where there is a 
fall of 42 feet in less than half a mile. The other parts, where 
the mountains thus approach the river, are at Passau, from 
Grein to Krems and Greifenstein, at Pressburg, and at Waitzen. 
In other places the mountains recede to a great distance, and 
the river flows through wide plains. The principal of these 
plains or basins are those of Linz, Tuin, Vienna, and the Great 
and Little Hungarian Plains. Here its course is generally 
slow and meandering, and it sometimes forms islands of con- 
siderable size, as the Lobau and Prater in the neighbourhood 
of Vienna, the great and little Schiitt islands between Pressburg 
and Komorn, and a number of others. 

The Danube rises in the Grand Duchy of Baden, by the 
union of two small streams, the Brege and Brigach, at 
Donaueschingen, on the S.E. declivity of the mountain range 
of the Black Forest, at the height of 2850 feet above the level 
of the sea. It enters Austria at Passau, when it has fallen to 
900 feet and has become navigable for steam vessels. It 
flows through the duchies of Upper and Lower Austria, first 
in a S.E. direction as far as Linz, and then generally E., past 

c 2 


Vienna till it enters Hungary, a little above Pressburg. From 
Pressburg its course is S.E., through the Little Hungarian 
Plain to its confluence with the Raab, whence it flows eastward 
to Waitzen. At Waitzen it turns S. and flows with a slow current 
and numerous windings through the Great Plain of Hungary for 
nearly 2\ degrees of latitude till its junction with the Drave, when 
it again has a general S.E. direction to Orsova where it leaves 
Austrian territory. In the upper part of its course, particularly 
above Vienna it flows with considerable velocity. Below 
Waitzen, when it enters upon the great plain of Hungary its 
course is slow, the banks generally low and marshy, and it 
forms numerous islets. After passing Moldova it forms a 
succession of rapids, the last and principal of which is the 
Iron Gate, where it rushes through a narrow channel with a 
great velocity. Its height above the sea is at Linz 690, 
Vienna 480, the mouth of the March 414, Pressburg 380, Pesth 
296, the mouth of the Drave 270, the mouth of the Save 
202, and at its exit below Orsova only 123 feet. The velocity 
of its current is at Passau 5, Vienna 3, and Baja 2 feet per 
second. The width of the river varies greatly in different parts ; 
being at Linz 800, Mauthausen 1250, Tuln 3300, Nutzdorf 
near Vienna, 1250, Pressburg 900, below which it varies to 
over 6000 feet. 

The principal affluents of the Danube in this country are — 
following the course of the stream, — on the right the Inn, 
Traun, Enns, Leitha, Raab, Drave and Save, and on the 
left, the March, Waag, Gran, Theiss and Temes. The Inn 
rises in the Swiss Canton of the Grisons, and enters Tyrol at 
Finstermimz. It flows first N. and then N.E., through the 
great valley of the Inn, passes Innsbruck, where it becomes 
navigable, and flows into Bavaria, below Kufstein. After re- 
ceiving the Salzach, it forms the boundary between Austria 
and Bavaria, to its mouth at Passau, being there a longer and 
much broader stream than the Danube itself. Length 320 miles. 
Its principal affluent is the Salzach, which rises in the Tauern 
Mountains, passes Salzburg, and for some distance from its 


mouth forms the boundary between Austria and Bavaria. The 
Traun rises at the foot of the Styrian Alps, in the N.W. of Styria, 
flows first westward into Upper Austria, then northward, pass- 
ing in its course through several lakes, the principal of which 
is the Traunsee, and falling into the Danube, near Linz, after 
a course of 1 10 miles. It is navigable to Hallstadt. The Enns 
rises in Salzburg, on the northern declivities of the Tauern 
Mountains, to the S. of Radstadt, flows N.E. into Styria, 
and afterwards N., forming the boundary between the duchies 
of Upper and Lower Austria, and falling into the Danube 
below the town of the same name after a course of 180 miles. 
The Leitha is formed by the union of two small streams, the 
Schwartzau and the Pitten, to the S. of Neustadt in Lower 
Austria. It flows generally in a N.E. direction, forming for 
some distance the boundary between Lower Austria and Hun- 
gary, and after a course of no miles, falling into the Danube. 
The Raab rises in Styria, flows first S.E. then E., enters 
Hungary, turns to the N.E., and falls into the Danube at the 
town of the same name, after a course of 150 miles. It is 
navigable from Kormond. The Drave (Z>rau), rises in the 
Pusterthal, in Tyrol, flows E. through Carinthia and Southern 
Styria, passing Villach, where it becomes navigable, and Mar- 
burg, then takes an E.S.E. direction, and forms the boundary 
between Hungary on the N., and Croatia and Slavonia on the 
S., to its mouth below Essek. It has a course of 380 miles, 
in the upper part of which its current is very rapid, but 
in the lower part it becomes rather sluggish, forming marshes 
along its low banks. Of its numerous affluents, the principal 
is the Mur, which rises in Salzburg, and flows first N.E. passing 
Judenburg, where it becomes navigable. At Bruck, it turns 
suddenly S., afterwards S.E., forms for a short distance the 
boundary between Styria and Hungary, enters Hungary, and 
falls into the Drave at Legrad, after a course of 250 miles. 
The Save (Sau), rises in the Julian Alps, not far from Mount 
Terglou, flows through Carniola, becoming navigable at Laibach; 
afterwards for some distance it forms the boundary between 


Carniola and Styria, enters Croatia, and after receiving the 
Unna forms the boundary between Slavonia and Bosnia and 
Servia to its mouth, between Semlin and Belgrade. It is up- 
wards of 600 miles in length, its general direction is E.S.E., 
and in the lower part of its course it is sluggish, with in many 
parts marshy banks. Its principal affluents are the Laibach, 
the Gurk, the Kulpa, and the Unna, the last forming the 
boundary between Croatia and Bosnia. 

Of the affluents *of the Danube here, on the left, the 
first important one is the March, which rises in the Spieglitzer 
Schneeberg, in the N. of Moravia, flows S. through that terri- 
tory, becomes navigable at Goding, afterwards forms the 
boundary between Lower Austria and Hungary, and falls into 
the Danube at Theben above Pressburg. It is 220 miles in 
length, and in the lower part of its course has many windings, 
and throws out arms which form numerous islands. Its 
principal affluent is the Thaya (T/iaja), which rises in the 
Bohemia-Moravian Mountains, flows first S. then E. on the 
borders between Moravia and Lower Austria, and finally S.E. 
to its mouth, having in all a course of 160 miles. The Waag 
is formed by the union of two streams called the Black and 
White Waag, in the Carpathians in the N. of Hungary. It 
flows first W. then S.W. and S., and finally S.E., thus 
forming in its course a great curve and joining the N. 
branch of the Danube, near Komorn. It has a course of 180 
miles and is navigable to Neustadtl. Its principal affluent 
is the Neutra which it receives immediately above its mouth, 
and which has a length of no miles. The Gran rises by 
several sources in the Hungarian Erzgebirge, flows first W. to 
Neusohl, then turns suddenly S., for some distance flows 
through an open valley, and falls into the Danube opposite 
the town of Gran after a course of 160 miles. It is navigable 
to Helpa, but with many obstacles. The largest affluent of the 
Danube, and the principal river of Hungary after the Danube 
is the Theiss. It rises in the eastern part of the kingdom, 
county of Marmaros, by the union of two streams, the Black 


and White Theiss, which descend from the western slopes 
of the Carpathians near the borders of Galicia. Its course 
is at first westerly, passing Szigeth where it becomes navigable, 
but after receiving the Szamos from the S., which brings into 
it a much larger volume of water than itself, it turns N.W. 
and afterwards S.W., receiving at Tokay the Bodrog from the 
N. Farther down it receives the Hernad from the same direc- 
tion, and tending more and more southward, its course at 
Szolnok is almost due S.j and it holds this with many windings 
to its mouth, being almost directly parallel with the course of 
the Danube in this part of Hungary. Below Szolnok its 
principal affluents are, the Koros ajid Maros, both from the 
left, the latter draining the greater part of Transylvania. It 
has a length of 800 miles, and drains an area of 56,000 square 
miles, including the eastern half of Hungary and the greater 
part of Transylvania. At Tit el, near its mouth, it is 750 feet 
wide. Here it is joined by the small river Bega, by means of 
which, and the Bega canal in connexion with it, it communi- 
cates with the upper part of the Temes. At some distance 
from its mouth the Bacser or Franzens Canal goes off, by 
means of which it is connected with the Danube, and the course 
up that river shortened by many miles. The Theiss is particu- 
larly noted for the abundance and excellence of its fish. The 
Temes rises on the W. declivities of the W. range of the Transyl- 
vanian Carpathians, flows first N. W., afterwards S.W., and finally 
S. to its mouth in the Danube at Pancsova. It is 280 miles 
in length and is navigable for small vessels to Lugos. In 
addition to these the Aluta, Sereth, and Pruth affluents of the 
Danube beyond Austria, drain in their upper courses the eastern 
portion of the country, — namely the Aluta, Transylvania ; the 
Sereth with its tributaries, the Suczawa, Moldava and Bistritza, 
Bukowina ; and the Pruth, the southern portion of Eastern 

The Dniester (Dniestr), which like the Danube, flows 
into the Black Sea, rises on the northern declivities of the 
Carpathians, in Galicia, flows first N. then E., S.E., and finally 


E. through that territory, forming for a short distance the 
boundary between it and Bukowina, also between it and 
Russia, and afterwards becoming entirely Russian. Of its 
entire length of 500 miles, 290 are in Galicia, and it drains an 
area therein of 14,500 square miles. It is navigable in Galicia 
to Sambor, a length of about 210 miles. It receives numerous 
affluents here, the principal of which is the Stry. The Pod- 
horce which also falls into it, separates for some distance 
Galicia from Russia. 

The Vistula ( Weichsel), drains the waters of a large portion 
of Galicia and a part of Silesia northward into the Baltic. It 
is formed by the union of three small streams, the White, Black, 
and Little Vistula, near the small town of Weichsel in Silesia. 
It flows first N., through Silesia, then turning E., it forms for 
a short distance the boundary between Austrian and Prussian 
Silesia. Below Cracow, where its course turns more N., it 
separates Galicia from Russian Poland, down to below San- 
domir, where it receives the San and leaves Austrian territory 
to pass through Russian Poland, and afterwards Prussia to 
its mouth. Its entire course is upwards of 600 miles in length, 
and it drains an area of 75,000 square miles ; and of the 
former, 240 miles, and of the latter 16,000 square miles are in 
Austria. It is navigable up to Cracow, or for 165 miles in this 
country. Its principal affluents here are, the Dunajec with its 
tributary the Poprad, and the San, which rises in the northern 
slopes of the Carpathians, flows through Galicia in a winding 
course, and has a length of 170 miles. It is navigable to 
Przemysl. The Bug, a portion of the upper part of whose 
course is in Galicia, does not join the Dniester till long after it 
has left Austrian territory. 

The Oder, which also falls into the Baltic, has only a length 
of 60 miles in this country, for no part of which it is na vi- 
able. It rises in the N. of Moravia, and flows first E. forming 
part of the boundary between Moravia and Silesia, and then 
N.E., through Silesia, into Prussia. Its tributaries here are 
unimportant, the principal being the Oppa, which for some 


distance separates Silesia from Prussia. The Oder drains in 
Austria, an area of 2400 square miles. 

The Elbe, which falls into the North Sea, below Hamburg, 
has its source, and the upper part of its course, in Bohemia. It 
is formed by the union of a number of streams in certain of 
the mountain meadows of the Riesengebirge, not far from the 
Schneekoppe, and at the height of about 4400 feet above the 
level of the sea. It flows first S. then W., N.W., and finally N., 
passing into Saxony, through the district, known as " Saxon 
Switzerland." Its length in Austria is 230 miles, for 175 of 
which it is navigable, up to Pardubitz, and it drains an area of 
21,000 square miles. At Koniggratz it is 620 feet above the level 
of the sea, at Melnik 430, and where it leaves the country 350. 
Its width at Koniggratz is 100, and at Melnik 300 feet. Its 
principal affluents are, the Moldau and the Eger. The former 
on account of its greater length and the larger volume of water 
which it carries down is entitled to be considered the main 
stream. It rises in the Bohemian Forest, flows first S.E. and 
afterwards has a N. course to its mouth at Melnik. It has a 
length of 260 miles, and is navigable to Budvveis, steamers 
coming up to Prague. The Eger rises by several sources on 
the eastern slopes of the Fichtelgebirge in Bavaria. It flows 
E. and falls into the Elbe at Theresienstadt, after a course of 
160 miles. 

The Rhine (Rhehi), which also flows into the North Sea, 
can scarcely be claimed as a river of Austria, seeing that it 
only flows along its western border for about 1 8 miles, before 
falling into the Lake of Constance, and the only tributary that 
it receives from the country is the 111, which has a course of 
about 50 miles. 

The Adige (Etsch), the principal river of Austria, which 
falls into the Adriatic, rises in the Reschen Lake, in the Oetz- 
thaler district of the Rhsetian Alps, flows first S. to Glurns, pass- 
ing in its course through two other small lakes. It then turns E. 
to Botzen, where it receives the Eisack, and becomes navig- 
able ; adopting then a S. course, it passes Trent, and after a time 


enters Lombardy ; then flowing S.E., and finally E. it falls into 
the Adriatic, not far from the mouth of the Po. Of its entire 
length of 230 miles, 140 are in Austria, and of these last, 64 
are navigable. Its principal affluents the Eisack, rises on the 
southern slopes of the Brenner, and has a length of about 50 
miles. Of the streams which have their course entirely within 
the country, and which fall into the Adriatic, the principal 
is the Isonzo, which rises in the vicinity of the Terglou, flows 
generally S., and falls into the Gulf of Trieste, after a course 
of 70 miles ; but it is only navigable for a short distance from 
its mouth. 

Lakes. — The lakes are numerous, but are mostly of small 
size. They occur principally in the region of the Alps, in the 
valleys, or at the foot of high mountains. In the northern 
limestone Alps, the principal are, the Hallstiidter, Traun, St. 
Wolfgang, Mond, Atter, and Waller lakes. In the southern 
limestone Alps are, the Reschen, Millstadter, Ossiacher, and 
Worther lakes. In addition to these, many small lakes occur 
in the high Alps. The Carpathians also in many parts contain 
numerous mountain lakes, usually of small size, but frequently 
of great beauty. The largest lake in the country is the Bala- 
ton or Piatt en, in Hungary, which is about 46 miles in length 
by from 4 to 9 in width, and has an area of about 215 square 
miles, exclusive of the extensive swamps that occur on its 
banks. The Neusiedler lake, also in Hungary, had a length 
of 18 miles, with a width of from 4 to 7, and an area of 127 
square miles, but its extent has lately been very much reduced 
by drainage, and sometimes in summer it is now quite dry. 
The most eastern portion of Lake Constance, and the northern 
end of Lago di Garda belong to Austria. In some of the northern 
parts of the monarchy, ponds, or lesser sheets of water are 
numerous. They occur particularly in Bohemia, where they 
are reckoned by hundreds, and cover an area of 150 square 
miles. In southern Moravia, in Galicia, and in the N. of 
Bukowina they are also numerous, occupying in Galicia an 
area of upwards 200 square miles. Swamps and marshes 


occur in all parts of the country, in the low-lying districts along 
the banks of rivers and in the vicinity of lakes. They are 
found particularly in the plains of Hungary along the Danube, 
Theiss, and other streams, and in connexion with the Platten 
and Neusiedler lakes. They occupy in all an area of over 
4200 square miles, but this is being gradually reduced by em- 
banking and drainage. Turf moors occur in the Bohemian 
Forest, the Sudetes, and some other parts. 

Mineral Springs. — No other country in Europe comes up 
to Austria-Hungary in the number and value of its mineral 
springs. These are reckoned at over 2800, and are of almost 
every variety — hot, cold, saline, chalybeate, sulpureous, gaseous, 
acidulous, alkaline, containing lime, magnesia, soda, potash, 
bromine, iodine, and many other minerals. Among the most 
celebrated of these are — in Bohemia, Karlsbad, Marienbad, 
Franzensbad, Bilin, Piillna, Teplitz and Sedlitz ; in Hungary, 
Fiired, Gran, Ofen, Mehadia, and Piftjan \ in Styria, Rohitsch, 
Gleichenberg, and Aussee ; in Upper Austria, Hall and Ischl ; 
in Lower Austria, Baden, and German Altenburg ; in Moravia, 
Lahatschowitz ; and in Salzburg, Gastein. These not only 
serve to attract numerous visitors to them during the season, 
but at many of them an extensive trade is carried on in bottling 
and sending the waters to distant parts. 




The climate of Austria- Hungary, in consequence of the great 
extent of its surface, its continental position and eastward ex- 
tension, the great differences in its elevation, and other cir- 
cumstances, is very various. In general, however, it may be 
characterized as mild and agreeable — favourable alike to 
animal and plant life, except in the high mountain regions. 

In the extreme E. in Bukowina, the sun rises i hour, 2 
minutes, 45 seconds earlier than in the extreme W. in Vorarl- 
berg ; the longest day to the inhabitants in the farthest N. part 
of Bohemia is 1 hour, 13 minutes, 41 seconds longer than to 
those in the most S. part of Dalmatia, being in the former case 
16 hours, 18 minutes, 49 seconds, and in the latter 15 hours, 5 
minutes, 8 seconds. At Vienna, the length of the longest day 
is 15 hours, 52 minutes, and of the shortest 8 hours, 8 

In the little elevated districts near the coast the variations 
in temperature are much less than in the interior, where hotter 
summers and colder winters prevail. The greatest variations 
occur in the plains of Hungary, where the summers are very 
hot and the winters intensely cold. Those parts which are 
protected on the N. by mountain ranges enjoy in conse- 
quence a comparatively mild climate, and on the other hand 
those that are shut out from the warm S. breezes by mountains 
have a colder climate than they otherwise would have. The 
mean annual temperature varies from about 6o° Fahr. in the 
extreme S., to 48 in the farthest N.; and from 52 in the 


extreme W., to 49 in the farthest E. These diminish accord- 
ing to the elevation of the place above the level of the sea at 
the rate of about one degree of mean annual temperature for 
every 300 feet. The limit of perpetual snow on the Alps, may- 
be taken at about 8500 feet, though it varies considerably in 
different parts. On the Carpathians it is about 200 feet 

It is usual in considering the climate to divide it into three 
zones, one embracing all that portion of the country which lies 
S. of the 46 of N. Lat, another all lying betwen 46 and 49 
of N. Lat., and the third all lying N. of the latter. The S. 
zone thus includes all Dalmatia, and the country along the 
coast, together with the S. portions of Tyrol and Carniola, also 
Croatia, Slavonia, and the most S. portion of Hungary. Here 
the seasons are mild and equable, the summers last for five 
months in the year, and the winters are short, with little snow 
or ice. The vine and maize are everywhere cultivated, as well 
as olives and other southern products. In the S. of Dal- 
matia tropical plants flourish in the open air. The central 
zone includes Lower and Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, 
Carinthia, northern Carniola, central and northern Tyrol, 
southern Bohemia and Moravia, the main portion of Hungary, 
Bukowina, and Transylvania. Here the seasons are more 
marked than in the preceding, the winters are longer 
and mpre severe, and the summers are shorter and hotter. 
The vine and maize are cultivated in favourable situations, and 
wheat and other kinds of grain are generally grown. The N. 
zone comprises the N. portion of Bohemia, and of Moravia 
together with Silesia and Galicia. The winters are here long 
and cold ; the vine and maize are no longer cultivated, the 
principal crops being wheat, barley, oats, rye, hemp, and flax. 

In general the western half of the country receives more rain 
than the eastern. In some parts in the vicinity of the Alps the 
rainfall is excessive, sometimes exceeding 60 inches. It is 
less among the Carpathians, where it usually varies from 30 
to 40 inches. In other parts it generally averages from 20 to 


24 inches, and in the plains of Hungary it is as low as 16 
inches. In the S. the rains prevail chiefly in spring and 
autumn, and in the N. and central parts during summer. 
Storms are frequent in the region of the Southern Alps and along 
the coast. 

Flora. — From the varied character of its climate and soil 
the vegetable productions of the country are very various. It 
has floras of the plains, the hills, and the mountains ; a temperate 
flora, an Alpine flora, and an Arctic flora ; a flora of marshes 
and a flora of steppes ; floras peculiar to the clay, the chalk, 
the sandstone, and the slate formations. There are reckoned 
no fewer than 4377 different species of Phanerogamous or 
flowering plants in the country, and nearly twice that number 
of species of Crypt ogamous, or flowerless plants. The duchy 
of Lower Austria surpasses any other part of the Monarchy in 
the number of species which it contains, amounting to about 
four-ninths of the whole, and more than 1700 species of the 
flowering plants. The Vienna [basin alone comprises 1397 
species of the latter. The forests occupy nearly one-third of 
the productive area of the country, and cover about 66,600 
square miles. They exist particularly in the regions of the 
Alps and Carpathians, and also of the Hercynian mountains. 
Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Tyrol, Silesia, and Bukowina, are 
all richly-wooded districts, as are also Croatia, Slavonia, and 
Transylvania. On the other hand Dalmatia, Istria, the Great 
Plain of Hungary, and the E. portion of Galicia, are all more 
or less deficient in wood. The forests consist chiefly of oak, 
ash, elm, beech, and the like, which rise on the mountain 
slopes to the height of about 4000 feet, and are succeeded by 
pine, fir, larch, &c, to the height of about 2000 feet more. 
In the S. the chestnut, walnut, and mulberry- trees are com- 
mon. Among fruit-trees may be mentioned the apple, pear, 
cherry, plum, peach, apricot, fig, olive, almond, orange, lemon, 
pomegranate, the last six chiefly in Dalmatia, and the adjoin- 
ing districts of the S. The vine is extensively cultivated, par- 
ticularly in Hungary and the southern parts. The chief fruit- 

FAUNA. 3 t 

growing districts are Lower Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Upper 
Austria, Styria, Carinthia, and a part of Tyrol and Vorarlberg. 
The principal grain crops are wheat, rye, oats, barley, maize, 
rice, millet and buck-wheat. Among the other vegetable pro- 
ducts of the country may be mentioned hemp, flax, tobacco 
(a state monopoly), potatoes, beans, peas, turnips, carrots, 
cabbage, beet, hops, rape-seed, &c. Besides these many 
medicinal plants are found wild or cultivated, and various 
plants used in dyeing. A large portion of the country is in 
meadow and pasturage, in moor and marsh, and has the plants 
peculiar to these parts. The chief pastoral districts are the 
Alpine lands, Maritime District, Dalmatia, Bukowina, Galicia, 
Bohemia, Moravia. 

Fauna. — The animal kingdom is not less rich and varied 
than that of the vegetable. Naturalists enumerate no fewer 
than 90 species of mammals, 250 of birds, 60 of reptiles, 380 
of fishes, and more than 13,000 of insects, as belonging to the 
country. Many animals that were once common have disap- 
peared, and many that were formerly abundant have now be- 
come scarce. The buffalo, the giant elk, and the elk which at 
one time existed here, have now disappeared, — the elk only so 
recently as 1769 (in Galicia). The wild goat which once had 
its home on the high Alps, is no longer found there, but the 
chamois is still common in all the Alpine regions and in 
Transylvania. The bear, wolf, and lynx have been nearly ex- 
tirpated in the W., but they are still numerous in the E. The 
fox is still common all over the country, but especially in the 
E. part. The otter is to be found near most of the waters 
where fish are plentiful, and is especially common in Hungary, 
but the beaver has almost disappeared except where preserved. 
Of the larger animals of chase are the wild boar and several 
species of deer, which are still found in the wooded districts 
of the Alps, the Hercynian mountains, and the Carpathians, 
but the former is becoming rare and the latter are mostly pre- 
served. The hare is common and to be found in all parts of 
the country, particularly the N. and the Alpine hare is common 


in all the Alpine regions. The wild cat, badger, polecat, 
marten, weasel, stoat, marmot, squirrel, mole, rat, mouse, are 
all more or less common. The jackal exists only in Dal- 
matia, and some of the neighbouring islands. The principal 
domestic animals are the horse, ass, mule, cow, ox, sheep, 
pig, goat. The number of birds is very great, : including 
several species of eagle and hawk, the Lammergeier, bustard, 
heron, wild goose, wild duck, gull, wood-pigeon, pheasant, 
red grouse, ptarmigan, blackcock, partridge, snipe, owl, and a 
great variety of singing birds, besides the ordinary domestic 
fowls. The rivers and lakes abound in different kinds of fish, 
which are also plentiful on the sea-coast. Among insects, the 
bee and the silk-worm are the most useful, and constitute con- 
siderable sources of gain. The leech forms an important 
article of export, and is obtained particularly in Hungary. 




The civil population of Austria- Hungary in 1818, amounted 
to 29,769,263; in 1830, it had increased to 34,082,469 ; in 1842, 

to 35> 2 95>957; and in 1857 to 37>339> 012 - Soon after this 
it lost its Lombardo- Venetian territories, with more than 
5,000,000 inhabitants. Taking the present limits of the 
Monarchy the civil population in 1857 amounted to 31,993,013; 
and in 1869 had risen to 35,634,858, being in Austria from 
18,224,500 to 20,217,531, and in Hungary from 13,768,513 to 
15,417,327. To these have to be added the military in active 
service, amounting in all to 269,577 men (177,449 in Austria, 
and 92,128 in Hungary), and raising the population of the 
Monarchy in 1869 to 35,904,435, of whom 17,737,175 were 
males and 18,167,260 females. Of the entire population 
5674 per cent, are in Austria, and 43*26 per cent, in Hungary. 
The civil population of the Monarchy is estimated as, at the end 
of 1876, amounting to 37,129,968, of which 21,565,435 were in 
Austria, and 15,564,533 in Hungary. The civil population of 
Austria at the end of 1878 is estimated at 21,970,649. The 
following table gives the area and civil population of the 
several provinces or crown lands of the Monarchy in 1857, and 
at the 31st of December, 1869. The first 14 provinces consti- 
tute the empire of Austria and the remaining four the kingdom 
of Hungary, or as they are sometimes termed Cis-Leithania 
and Trans-Leithama, from the small river Leitha, which flows 
for some distance between the two. 





Area in 
sq. miles. 

in 1857. 

Population in 1869. 




Lower Austria . 
Upper Austria . . 





Gorz, Istria, and Trieste 
Tyrol and Vorarlberg . 
































948, 206 



















1,13!, 309 












Transylvania .... 
Croatia and Slavonia . 
Military Frontier . . 



















Total of Monarchy . 






A comparison of the two divisions shows that as regards 
extent, Austria is to Hungary as 4 to 4^, while in regard to 
population the former is to the latter as 4 to 3, denoting that 
Hungary is considerably more thinly populated than Austria. 
The density of the population is for the whole Monarchy 149 
inhabitants to the square mile — being in Austria 174, and in 
Hungary 124 per square mile. But these proportions differ 
greatly in different parts of the country, partly owing to the 
character of the surface, partly to the presence of active indus- 


tries. In the mountainous regions the population is generally 
very sparse, and on the other hand where mining or manufac- 
tures are actively carried on, or in the neighbourhood of large 
towns the population is comparatively dense. In general, the 
W. portion of the Monarchy is the most densely populated, 
and it becomes gradually less so as we proceed eastward. The 
most thinly populated districts are the Alpine lands and Dal- 
matia. The province of Silesia has a population of 257 in- 
habitants to the square mile, Lower Austria which contains the 
capital Vienna 256, Bohemia 254, and Moravia 233, and on 
the other hand Dalmatia has only 89, Carinthia 84, Tyrol and 
Vorarlberg 77, and Salzburg 54. This disproportion is still 
more marked if we take particular districts even in the same 
province. Thus in the N.E. of Bohemia on the declivities of 
the Riesengebirge the ratio is as high as 600, 800, and even 
900 inhabitants per square mile, while in the S.W. in the 
neighbourhood of the Bohemian Forest, it is as low as 160 and 

It will be observed that in the Monarchy as a whole and in 
almost every one of the provinces, the number of females ex- 
ceeds that of males. In the Military Frontier the males consi- 
derably exceed the females, and there is a trifling excess also 
in Transylvania and Bukowina, but in all the other provinces 
the females are more numerous. This is not different from 
what is found in other countries. Taking the whole of the 
Monarchy the proportion is 1041 females to every 1000 males, 
rising in Austria to 1060, and falling in Hungary to 10 14. If 
we take in the army we have for the whole of Austria 1024 
females to every 1000 males. The difference in this respect 
is considerable when we regard the different provinces. Thus 
in Silesia the excess of females over males is 109 per 1000, 
Moravia 107, Carniola 106, and Bohemia 98; on the other 
hand in Lower Austria it is only 21, in Hungary 17, Dalmatia 
11, and Croatia-Slavonia 9. The inequality appears to de- 
crease as we proceed from the north southward, and from the 
west eastward. It also appears to depend largely upon race — 

d 2 


the greatest differences being found among the Czechs, Slavo- 
nians and Germans, differences in a much less degree among 
the Poles, Ruthenians, and Hungarians, while among the 
southern Slavs and Roumanians the sexes are about equal. 

As regards the condition of the people, 10,299,416 males and 
10,006,323 females were single, 6,632,804 males and 6,666,435 
females were married, 516,190 males and 1,464,507 females 
were widowers and widows, and 19,188 males and 29,995 
females were separated from their partners. That the number 
of widows is so much greater than that of widowers is accounted 
for from the fact that the men marry usually at a considerably 
later period of life than the women, and their labours are more 
exhausting. If we consider only those of over 15 years of age we 
have 35.85 per cent, males and 30.97 per cent, females single, 
59.37 per cent, males and 56.40 per cent, females married, 4.62 
per cent, males and 12.38 per cent, females widowers and widows, 
and 0.16 percent, males and 0.25 per cent, females divorced. 

With regard to age, there were 2,453,77 1 males and 2,480,286 
females under five years of age; 1,966,631 males and 2,017,258 
females between five and ten; 1,853,204 males and 1,847,824 
females between ten and fifteen; 1,602,269 males and 1,956,400 
females between fifteen and twenty; 2,706,331 males and 
3,077,972 females between twenty and thirty; 3,450,854 males 
and 2,535,076 females between thirty and forty; 1,940,560 
males and 2,008,472 females between forty and fifty ; 1,397,800 
males and 1,398,499 females between fifty and sixty; 778,117 
males and 763,851 females between sixty and seventy ; 253,833 
males and 237,352 females between seventy and eighty; 
40,130 males and 39,710 females between eighty and ninety ; 
3816 males and 4238 females between ninety and a hundred ; 
and 282 males and 325 females of a hundred and upwards. 

Comparing the populations of the two divisions of the 
Monarchy, we find that of Hungary to comprise a greater pro- 
portion of young persons than that of Austria. In Hungary the 
proportion of persons not exceeding 30 years of age was, of males 
62, and of females 64 per cent, of the entire population, while 


in Austria the numbers were respectively 59.68 and 59.52. 
The individual average of life, however, is greater in Austria 
than in Hungary, and of persons over 60 years of age there 
were 1.5 per cent, more men and 1.8 per cent, more women in 
the former than in the latter. Of the productive ages, taken 
at between 16 and 60, Austria contains a larger proportion 
than Hungary, being in the former 58.15 per cent, of males 
and 60.22 of females, and in the latter 57.37 per cent, of males 
and 58.13 of females. It may also be mentioned that in 
Hungary, while the number of females exceeds that of males 
up to 30 years of age, from 30 up to 90 the number of males 
is in excess of that of females, which is not the case in Austria, 
where only between the ages of 80 and 90 do we find the 
males slightly more numerous than the females. 

The number of blind was 29,509, or one in every 1208 of 
the population ; of deaf mutes 39,205, or one in every 909 ; 
of insane 32,957, or one in every 1081 ; and of Cretins 28,802, 
or one in every 1220. 

In Austria the native population amounted to 15,925,924, 
or 78.77 per cent, of the whole ; in Hungary to 14,776,383, 
or 95.84 per cent., and in the Monarchy to 30,702,307, or 
86.16 per cent. The greatest number of foreigners are found 
in Lower Austria, and especially in Vienna, where no less than 
55 per cent, of the inhabitants are not natives of the city. Of 
the foreigners in Austria, 66,400 were Germans, 29,400 
Italians, 4500 Swiss, 4100 Russians, 3000 Turks, 2300 French, 
1700 Roumanians, and 1500 British. In Hungary there were 
5700 Germans, 4100 Italians, 1100 Turks, 600 Swiss, and 400 
British. Of the natives of Austria who were abroad, 41,500 
were in Germany, 17,300 in Italy, 11,400 in Russia, 10,600 in 
Turkey, and 9900 in America : of Hungarians there were in 
Roumania 17,100, in Servia 3300, in Germany 2000, and in 
Turkey 1700. 

In 1869 there were in Austria 738 cities and large towns, 
1270 market towns, 52,919 villages, and 2,766,314 inhabited 
and 121,045 uninhabited houses. In Hungary there were 189 


cities and large towns, 769 market .towns, 16,373 villages, and 
2,450,213 houses inhabited and uninhabited. The cities con- 
taining more than 100,000 inhabitants were Vienna (607,514), 
Pesth (200,476), and Prague (157,713). Seven cities contained 
between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, 42 between 20,000 
and 50,000, and 90 between 10,000 and 20,000. 

Of the entire population, 31,389 in Austria and 10,858 in 
Hungary were ecclesiastics ; 72,147 in Austria and 35,540 in 
Hungary officials; 40,503 in Austria and 28,221 in Hungary 
teachers ; 75,642 in Austria and 63,437 in Hungary students ; 
15,888 in Austria and 12,018 in Hungary literary persons and 
artists; 7230 in Austria and 4884 in Hungary lawyers and 
notaries; 28,142 in Austria and 14,283 in Hungary medical 
practitioners; 7,497,500 in Austria and 5,015,899 in Hungary 
engaged in agricultural pursuits ; 104,342 in Austria and 
48,854 in Hungary employed in mining ; 2,706,960 in Austria 
and 833,885 in Hungary engaged in various branches of 
industry, manufacture, and trade; 817,835 in Austria and 
1,143,075 in Hungary employed as domestic servants; and 
8,404,663 in Austria and 8,117,693 in Hungary of no fixed 

Taking the number of births in Austria from 1868 to 1876, 
and in Hungary from 1868 to 1874, we find the annual average 
to be in the former 814,152, or 40.2 per thousand of the 
population, and in the latter 648,428, or 42.1 per thousand, 
making together 1,462,580, or 41.0 per thousand. Of these 
752,429 were males and 710,151 females, being at the rate 
of 105.9 males to every hundred females. The illegitimate 
births were 12.6 per cent, in Austria, and 6.^ in Hungary; but 
they varied greatly in the different provinces, being in Carniola 
as high as 46, and in the Military Frontier and Dalmatia as 
low as 2 and 2.2 per cent. The still-born averaged about 
20,000 annually, or 1.6 of the entire number of births. 

The annual average number of marriages w T as 359,579, 
being for Austria 190,904, or 9.4 per thousand of the popu- 
lation, and for Hungary 169,675, or 10.9 per thousand. The 


number of marriages varies greatly in different parts of the 
Monarchy, being in some as high 1 1 per thousand of the popu- 
lation, in others little more than half of that number. In general 
they are more frequent in the eastern than in the western half. 
Of the bridegrooms 19.8 per cent in Austria and 37.4 per cent, 
in Hungary did not exceed 24 years of age; and 35.9 per cent, 
in Austria and 34.5 per cent, in Hungary were between 24 and 
30. Of the brides 19.8 per cent, in Austria, and 37.4 in Hungary 
were not over 20 years of age; and 35.9 per cent, in Austria and 
34.6 per cent, in Hungary were between the ages of 20 and 24. 
Thus in Austria the greatest number of marriages take place 
in males beween the ages of 24 and 30, and in females 
between 20 and 24 ; while in Hungary most marriages take 
place in males not exceeding 24, and in females not over 20 
years of age. In districts wholly German the majority of males 
do not marry till between 30 and 40 years of age, and of females 
till between 24 and 30. Among the Slav population marriages 
take place much earlier : — in Bohemia, Moravia, and 
Silesia more than one-third of the males are married between 
24 and 30, and in Galicia and Bukowina more than a third 
before they are over 24. Of the entire number of marriages, 
74.9 per cent, were between persons neither of whom had been 
previously married ; 7.4 between persons both of whom had 
been previously married ; 12.3 where the male only had been 
previously married; and 5.4 where the female only had been 
previously in that state. 

The annual average number of deaths for the period 
above stated amounted to 643,379 (334,320 males and 
309,059 females) in Austria, and 642,248 (333,900 males and 
308,348 females) in Hungary, making together 1,285,627 
(668,220 males and 617,407 females) as the total number. 
This was at the rate of 31.8 per thousand of the population 
for Austria, and not less than 41.6 per thousand for Hungary. 
These are high death-rates, particularly that of Hungary, and 
are to be partly accounted for by the prevalence of the cholera 
epidemic, especially in Hungary, during several of the years 


from which the average has been taken. In Hungary, in 1872 
the number of deaths exceeded that of births by 17,800, and 
in 1873 by more than 300,000. The number of deaths among 
young children is very great, and is greater in Hungary* than in 
Austria. Altogether 34.8 per cent, of the males and 30.3 per 
cent of the females were children who had not completed their 
first year, and 17.6 per cent, of the males and 17.9 per cent, of 
the females were between the ages of 1 and 5 years. Thus 
nearly a third of the deaths are of children of one year and 
under, and about a half are not exceeding 5 years of age. 
Taking the two divisions of the Monarchy, we find that in 
Austria 50.1 per cent, of the males and 45.9 of the females, and 
in Hungary 52.3 per cent, of the males and 48.9 of the females 
had not completed their fifth year. Under five years of age 
1 12.2 males die for every 100 females, and taking all ages, 
108.2 males for every 100 females. 

Races. — The population of Austria-Hungary is made up of a 
number of distinct races, differing from each other in manners, 
customs, language, and religion ; and united together only by 
living under the same government. No other state in Europe, 
except Russia, embraces within it so many distinct nationalities, 
and nowhere else at the present time do quessions affecting the 
relations of different nationalities present so many interesting 
features. 1 To these questions the present emperor has addressed 
himself with intelligence and zeal, and, by means of wise 

1 Austria "is charged with a task unique and exceptional among the 
powers and nations of modern Europe. German and Slav, Czech and 
Magyar, Christian and Mussulman, Jew and Gentile, all have to be recon- 
ciled to a common rule, and to be welded, if possible, into a single 
nationality. Nowhere perhaps in Europe are the rivalries of race and 
religion, of political and social aims stronger and more conflicting, and yet 
it is the singular fortune of Austria to control and to harmonize them all. 
The task is not accomplished of course without continual friction and diffi- 
culty, but somehow or other it never entirely fails, and year by year it 
seems to approach towards fuller and more permanent success. We have 
only to think of the condition of Austria before 1848, and again after 1866, 
to realize the substantial progress that has been made. . . . Matters are 
very different now, — Austria has long been reconciled to Hungary ; and 
Bohemia is at last preparing to accept its allotted place in the National 
Constitution. "—(The Times, October 9th, 1879.) 



legislation, of liberal concessions, and the substitution of direct 
for indirect representation, has sought to promote the best 
interests of all classes of his subjects. It remains to be seen 
how far it may be possible by these means to reconcile and 
fuse together the different nationalities. 2 The Germans are the 
dominant race in Austria, and the Magyars in Hungary, but in 
neither do they form a majority of the population. The 
various divisions of Slavs constitute the most numerous race 
in the country, making about 45.5 per cent, of the whole 
population. No official census has been taken of the different 
nationalities since 1850, but the following table, based on the 
census of 1869, and taken from the best German authorities, is 
believed to be a pretty close approximation to the truth. 





Germans . . . 








Poles .... 




Ruthenians . 




Slovens . . . 




Croats and Serbs 




Magyars . 




Italians . . . 



588, IOO 

Roumanians . . 

207, 900 



Jews .... 




Various . . . 




Total .... 




2 Many persons seem to think that there exists some mysterious quality 
in race that tends to keep nationalities distinct under all circumstances. As 
against this view Mr. Arthur J. Patterson says, " In Hungary we find many 
instances of loss or rather change of nationality. The Germans have in 
many, perhaps in the majority, of their settlements lost their German charac- 
ter and become here Magyars, there Slovacks, in the third place Wallachs. 
There are besides undoubted cases where Magyars have become Slovacks, 
Ruznieks, or Wallachs. Again several Slovack communes have become 
Magyars. It must be borne in mind that I am at present not taking into 
account individual cases, butt only those in which whole villages, parishes, 
and communes have gone over from one nationality to another." (The 


The Germans constitute 25.27 per cent, of the entire popula- 
tion, being 35.16 per cent, of the population of Austria, and 
12.30 per cent, of that of Hungary. They form almost the 
entire population of the provinces of Upper Austria and 
Salzburg, and 90 per cent, of that of Lower Austria, 63 of 
Styria, 69 of Carinthia, 60 of Tyrol, and 51 of Silesia. They 
also form 38 per cent, of the population of Bohemia, and 
26 per cent, of that of Moravia. 

The German of Austria is in general well built, of middle 
size, bony and muscular, but rather spare than corpulent. He 
is possessed of the general characteristics of the German race, 
has good natural abilities, and displays a considerable degree 
of aptitude, skill, and inventive genius. What particularly 
distinguishes him among Germans is his light-hearted, joyous, 
and happy disposition, together with great good humour and 
equanimity of mind, so that he is not easily put out of temper, 
and manifests great forbearance under sometimes trying 
circumstances. He is fond of pleasure and of society, open and 
trustful, but still not without some degree of seriousness, and 
a certain amount of reserve. He is also brave, true-hearted, 
kind, hospitable, industrious, a lover of order, and in a high 
degree a law-abiding man. He manifests a strong attachment 
to old customs and usages, and a great disinclination to change ; 
and he is also characterized by an intense love of " Fatherland," 
for which he will submit to any hardships, dare any dangers. 

The Magyars constitute in Hungary and Transylvania 42 
per cent, of the entire population of these parts, and though 
not forming an absolute majority, none of the other races nearly 
come up to them in point of numbers. They form 16.01 per cent, 
of the entire population of the monarchy. Unlike the Germans, 
Slavs, and Roumanians, who are European races, the Magyars 
are of Asiatic descent, and have only been established in the 
country since the end of the ninth century. They are believed 
to be of Tartar origin, and to be allied to the Fins ; but they 
have become very much mixed with the Huns, Slavs, Germans, 
and others among whom they have lived, so that they are by no 



means a pure race, though they have maintained their 
individuality and still present many traces of their Oriental 
extraction. They have the free gait, the dignified bearing and 
open glance of the warrior. They are proud, high-minded, 


brave, honourable, hospitable, fond of convivialities and fine 
clothes, and but little inclined to steady, patient labour. There 
are only two classes among them, the nobles and peasants, and 
even the latter have the bearing and manners of gentlemen — 
respectful to those above them without being servile. They 


have an intense love of liberty, and their warlike spirit and 
courage have gained renown for the Hungarian regiments 
wherever they have been engaged. The Magyar is a born 
soldier \ to carry arms is his greatest pride, and he remains 
true to the flag to which he has sworn. It is as a hussar that 
he is most distinguished, and indeed he has given name to this 
species of light cavalry, which was first introduced by the 
Hungarians. From his earliest years the Magyar and his 
horse are inseparable companions ; they are constantly to- 
gether, and in accordance with this custom he prefers to fight 
on horseback. The Magyar is of average height, well-formed, 
and muscular, with regular, well-cut features, aquiline nose, finely 
formed mouth, strong moustache, and oval chin. The hair is 
usually black, or at least dark ; and the women, particularly of 
the higher ranks, are distinguished for their beauty. Even among 
the upper classes, the ladies of the family perform almost all those 
services for which in England we have special servants. " The 
young ladies of a large family will all be employed together on the 
arrival of an expected visitor — one assisting to cook, another 
bringing the dishes to table, a third seeing that all the guests 
are provided for, and a fourth clearing away" (Prof. Ansted). 

The Slavs form the most numerous race of people in the 
monarchy, but unfortunately they are broken up into several 
branches, speaking different languages, and having little in 
common. Farther they are almost exclusively confined to the 
northern or southern regions of the country, and are thus 
separated from each other by a wide middle tract inhabited 
by Germans, Magyars, and Roumanians. The northern Slavs 
belong to three distinct nations, speaking different languages, 
namely the Czechs (including the Moravians and Slovaks), the 
Poles, and the Ruthenians. The southern Slavs include the 
Slovens or Wends, the Croats, and Serbs. Of late years, 
attempts have been made to bring about a closer union be- 
tween the different tribes of Slavs, Panslavic congresses have 
been held and the movement has been gaining strength and 
importance. One difficulty they have to contend with is the 

mL WC^or.^ 



Page 44. 

RACES. 45 

want of a common language, so that they are obliged, however 
unwillingly, to make use of the hated German at their congresses, 
and in their communications with each other. The Slavs 
are in general a strong, patient, laborious, undemonstrative 
race of people. They number altogether 16,218,000 persons 
(45.5 per cent, of the entire population), of whom 11,035,700 
are northern, and 4,182,300 southern Slavs. 

The Czechs (including the Czechs Proper who inhabit 
Bohemia, the Moravians who dwell in Moravia, and the 
Slovaks who live in the N.W. of Hungary) are the most nume- 
rous branch of the Slav population, and are on the whole the 
most advanced. They possess an ancient history, rich in the 
great deeds of their ancestors, an early and polished literature, 
and are distinguished by many mental endowments. The 
Czech is laborious and painstaking; has a good natural 
understanding, comprehension, and imagination; an excellent 
memory so that he readily acquires foreign languages ; and he 
also distinguishes himself in the study of various of the 
higher branches of knowledge, particularly mathematics and 
astronomy. For art, and especially for music, he displays 
great talent, and Bohemian musicians are known throughout 
Austria, and Germany, and even much more widely. In 
body he is strong and muscular, capable of enduring a great 
amount of fatigue ; so that he makes a good soldier, and is 
also to be found in most of the provinces employed in the 
hardest kinds of work. The Czechs form 18.41 per cent, of 
the entire population of the monarchy. They occur chiefly in 
Bohemia where they form 60 per cent, of the population, and 
in Moravia where they form 72 per cent. They also form 10 
per cent, of the population of Silesia. With their neighbours, 
the Germans, whom they look upon in the light of foreign 
intruders into their country, they live on anything but friendly 
terms, and a great deal of mutual enmity and mistrust exists 
between the two races. The Czech still obstinately holds to his 
own manners and customs, and will by no means assimilate him- 
self to the German. Hence mistrust, reserve, and stubbornness 


in opinion, have come to be marked features of the Czech 

The Ruthenians are a branch of the great stock of Little 
Russians, and inhabit chiefly Eastern Galicia, Bukowina, and 
the N.E. of Hungary. They form 44~per cent, of the popula- 
tion of Galicia, and 40 per cent, of that of Bukowina. They 
are a strong and hardy race of men, and are mostly employed 
in agriculture or cattle-rearing, in wood-cutting or charcoal- 
burning. There is no burger or citizen class among them, and 
the middle and upper classes in the country are almost all Poles. 
The soil is but rudely cultivated, and is besides so subdivided 
into small lots as to afford but a very precarious and insuf- 
ficient subsistence. Hence they are mostly all poor, living in 
wretched wooden or mud huts under the same roof with their 
cattle. They have, however, a strong love of freedom, and 
manifest an intense dislike to foreigners, including the Poles. 
They are very superstitious, and still retain many of the 
heathenish customs that prevailed among them before the in- 
troduction of Christianity. 

The Poles form 6.86 per cent, of the entire population. 
They occur chiefly in Galicia where they constitute 42 per cent. 
of the population, and in Silesia where they form 29 per 
cent. They are mostly confined to the W. half of Galicia as 
the Ruthenians are most numerous in the E. half. The 
Poles in the upper ranks of life are a handsome, well developed, 
active, and intelligent class of men ; but unfortunately the 
majority of the people have, as the result of many generations 
of penury and hardship, very much degenerated, as is seen in 
their wasted forms, their indolent and spiritless movements, 
and their gross ignorance. The former are brave, frank, and 
generous, but at the same time proud and haughty, while the 
latter are cringing and servile, their whole behaviour evincing 
a state of the most abject servility. 

The Southern Slavs consist of the Slovens or Wends, who 
exist chiefly in the S. of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and the 
Maritime District, and the Croats and Serbs who inhabit chiefly 

RACES. 47 

Croatia and Slavonia, Dalmatia, the S. of Hungary, and Transyl- 
vania. They are generally characterized as cheerful, contented, 
happy, good-natured, upright, honest, frank, open, kind, and hos- 
pitable. For this last quality, they are particularly distinguished. 
They are at the same time, however, very ignorant and super- 
stitious, and strongly attached to traditional usages. They are 
very primitive in their habits, content with the produce yielded 
by their fields and cattle, and having no wish to travel beyond 


the limits of their native districts. They usually live together 
in large families of from 6 to 10, and often many more mem- 
bers. The oldest member of the family, or his represen- 
tative is the " House father," who directs the labours of each 
individual, both in the house and in the field, and to whom 
the most implicit obedience is rendered. Hence, love to his 
family and to his paternal home is one of the strongest features 
in the character of the Southern Slav. The Croats and Serbs, in 
particular, are brave and warlike, but are at the same time said 


to be treacherous and cruel. The former have long manifested 
a feeling of hostility against the Magyars, which showed itself in 


1848-49 in their taking up arms on behalf of the empire 
against Hungary. 

The Roumanians, or East Romans, called also Wallachians 
and Moldavians, constitute 7.54 per cent, of the population of 



Page 49. 

RACES. 49 

the Monarchy. They live chiefly in the E. provinces, and form 
in Transylvania 52 per cent, of the population, in Bukowina 
39 per cent, and in Hungary 10 per cent. Next to 
the Magyars they form the most numerous race in Trans- 
Leithania. In appearance they bear a strong resemblance to 
the Italians, clearly showing, as does also their language, that 
they are both connected with the same root. The head and 
face are long, the complexion dark, the eyes large, black, and 
deep, flashing up suddenly under excitement, the nose of a 
pure Roman form, the mouth well shaped, with beautiful white 
teeth, the hair long, dark, thick, hanging wild and disorderly 
round the head, a long thick moustache — the priests only wear- 
ing beards. They are well formed, of middle size, but slow 
and heavy in their movements and extremely lazy, their great 
delight being to spend their time in doing nothing. They 
are ignorant, superstitious, bigoted, and improvident; but their 
mental faculties are good, and they display a considerable 
amount of mechanical genius, and are skilful in the use 
of their hands. On the other hand they are said to be 
cowardly, deceitful, crafty, malicious, and cruel. The Roumanian 
looks to his wife to labour for him, and besides her domestic 
duties she works for him in the garden, field, vineyard, and 
forest. The females of the family also spin, weave, and make 
all the garments of the household, male as well as female. 
They are rarely to be seen abroad without the spindle 
and distaff. When young they are reckoned very beautiful. 
Their movements are easy and graceful, the figure faultless, 
hands and feet small, head and face beautifully oval, the 
eyes dark, generally quite black, and full of life and anima- 
tion, with long eyelashes, thick eyebrows, and a well-formed 
nose and mouth. 

The Italians, with the Ladins and the Friulians are known as 
West Romans, and inhabit certain of the W. provinces. In the 
Maritime District they form 31 per cent, of the population, and 
in Tyrol 39 per cent. There are a considerable number also in 
Dalmatia. The Italians are most numerous in the district 


around Trent in Southern Tyrol where they form a compact 
body. They are active, pushing and industrous, and are 
rapidly extending. The love of their native country and the 
desire to promote its best interests are ever strong in the 
breast of the Italian. The Ladins, a corruption of Latins, in- 
habit certain valleys of Tyrol. They were formerly much 
more numerous than at present, but they have been gradually 
Germanized, and now number in all probably not more than 
10,000 persons. The Friulians inhabit a district in the south- 
west of Gorz-Gradisca. 

The Jews form about 3.86 per cent, of the population. They 
are most numerous in Galicia, Bukowina, Transylvania, Hun- 
gary, Bohemia, Moravia, and Lower Austria. In the Alpine 
provinces they are rarely met with. Their character and pur- 
suits here are not different from what they are in other countries 
and are sufficiently well known. 

Among other races are Bulgarians of whom there are 
26,000 in Hungary; Albanians, in Dalmatia and Croatia- 
Slavonia ; Greeks in Lower Austria (1000), and Transylvania ; 
Armenians in Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, and Bukowina. 
The Gipsies are numerous in Hungary where according to 
some authorities they exceed 150,000; but by the author we 
have followed they are included in the Magyars. 




Austria-Hungary being composed of different nationalities, 
has also different languages and different literatures. It has 
not, as is the case in most other states, one national language, 
and one national literature. The number of distinct languages 
or dialects spoken in the country, exceeds twenty. German is 
indeed the language of the court, and of the upper classes 
generally, and is the language in which the great mass of the 
literature of the country is written. It is besides the common 
language of a large portion of the country, is used to some ex- 
tent in almost all the large towns, and is generally understood by 
the educated classes in all parts of the country. To the great 
majority of the people, however, and in most parts of the coun- 
try it is an unknown tongue. German is the spoken language 
of Lower and Upper Austria, Salzburg, Middle and N. Styria, 
N., Middle, and W. Carinthia, N. and Middle Tyrol, also of the 
N.W. of Bohemia, the N. of Moravia, and Upper Silesia. There 
are likewise in all the provinces, isolated districts, inhabited by 
Germans, where the language is spoken. Altogether it is 
estimated to extend over 55,000 square miles. Except in some 
districts of Hungary and Transylvania where Low German is 
spoken, the language in use is the modern High German, but in 
different dialects. That which is most extensively and indeed 
generally spoken, is known as the Bavaria- Austrian dialect. 
In Vorarlberg the Svvabian dialect is spoken, in the N.W. of 
Bohemia the Franconian, in the E. of Bohemia the Upper 
Saxon, and in the N. of Moravia and Upper Silesia, the 

e 2 


Silesian. The German literature of Austria is the German 
literature generally. The history and present condition of the 
one is likewise that of the other. In general, however, in 
Austria speculative subjects do not receive so much attention 
as they do farther north. The people here incline more to 
the useful and practical, and their books treat more of the arts 
and manufactures, of trade and commerce, natural history and 
geography, natural philosophy, medicine, surgery, and the like. 
The Magyar language is a branch of the Ugric group of the 
Finnish family. In the course of time, it has come to acquire 
a number of words from other languages, as the Slavonic, 
German, French, Latin, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Persian, 
Arabic, but it has digested them all in its own way, and accord- 
ing to its own nature. Though till recently almost entirely 
neglected, it is a polished language, rich in expression, and 
remarkable, particularly for its system of suffixes. It is very 
terse, a decidedly soldierly language, and well adapted for pur- 
poses of oratory. It is not so vocalic as the Italian, nor so 
consonantal as the German or Slavonic tongues. The Latin 
language was introduced into the country with Christianity 
and western civilization, and for more than eight centuries it 
was the language of the educated classes generally, used in 
the state assemblies and courts of law, in all state and public 
documents, and in the schools. The oldest literary remains of 
Hungary are therefore in the Latin language; and though in the 
latter half of the fifteenth and earlier part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, a number of distinguished writers appeared, particularly 
in history, medicine, natural science, philosophy, mathematics, 
and poetry, their works were mostly in the Latin tongue. It 
was only towards the close of the eighteenth century that par- 
tial efforts began to be made for the cultivation and general 
adoption of the mother tongue, and only within the last fifty 
years that these efforts have become general, and have been 
followed by the most marked success. The Magyar is now 
the language in which all state affairs are conducted, the lan- 
guage of the law courts, and of society generally, and is taught 


in all the schools. Many works too of the highest class are 
annually issuing in it from the press ; so that altogether, 
Hungary possesses to-day a literature which, both as regards 
its quantity and quality, will bear comparison with that of most 
other nations. 

The Czech or Bohemian language is the richest and most 
developed, but at the same time the harshest and strongest 
(owing to its abounding in consonants) of the Slavonic 
tongues. Its forms are less developed than the Polish and its 
consonants less softened. It is distinguished among its sister 
dialects by its copiousness of root-words, great flexibility in 
combination, precision of expression, and accurate grammati- 
cal construction. Its grammar is complicated, and more 
difficult to master than that of most other languages. It 
differs from most European languages in the use of quantity 
instead of accent in its poetry, as in Greek and Latin, and 
hence it can accurately copy the different metres of these 
tongues ; and, indeed, in no other modern language can the 
ancient classics be so faithfully and forcibly translated. It is 
spoken in three dialects, the Bohemian Proper, the Moravian, 
and the Slovak. The oldest forms exist in the Moravian 
dialect. The Bohemian literature is older than that of the 
other Slavonic tongues, and dates from the tenth century. The 
improved language dates from the time of John Huss, who, 
like Martin Luther, was a reformer of language as well as of 
religion. He revised and improved the Bohemian translation 
of the Bible, and wrote about twenty other works, great and 
small. The period from 1526 to 1620 is called, by the 
Bohemians, the golden age of their literature. During this 
period the arts and sciences were cultivated with diligence, 
knowledge was sought after, and generally diffused, and the 
language attained a high degree of excellence. There were 
two universities at Prague, and numerous other educational 
institutions there and elsewhere over the country. The most 
disastrous period for Bohemian literature, was during and sub- 
sequent to the Thirty Years' War (16 18— 1648), when the 


best of her people were either slain or obliged to leave the 
country, and their places were supplied by Italian, Spanish, 
Dutch, German, and other adventurers, who came in troops 
and possessed themselves of all dignities and offices. Jesuit 
missionaries went from place to place and from house to 
house, accompanied by soldiers, searching for and destroying 
all books that were suspected of heresy. This destruction of 
books continued to far into the eighteenth century. It is im- 
possible to form an estimate of the vast amount of valuable 
literature that thus perished. One Jesuit who died in 1760, 
boasted that he had destroyed 60,000 Bohemian books. In 
1774, an imperial decree ordained the establishment of Ger- 
man schools throughout the country, and in 1784 it was 
decreed that instruction in the higher schools should be given 
only in German. These measures caused great dissatisfaction, 
and met with much opposition, and, at length, in 1818 a decree 
was issued recommending the use of the Bohemian language 
in the gymnasia. Since that time the progress of the language 
has been very rapid. Many books now appear in it, and a 
strong attachment to it is manifested by all classes of society. 
The Polish language is, after the Bohemian, the principal 
dialect of the Northern Slavs. It is a remarkably rich, flexible, 
harmonious, and expressive language. Its grammatical struc- 
ture is fully developed and firmly established, and its ortho- 
graphy precise and perfect. The verb is exceedingly rich in 
forms which serve to express frequency, intensity, inception, 
duration, and other modes of action or being. There are three 
principal dialects, the Mazurish, which is spoken in the plains, 
the Cracovian, and the Silesian. After the introduction of 
Christianity, Latin becam'e the common language of the 
educated classes of the country, and continued to be so for 
centuries. It is only in the beginning of the sixteenth century 
that Polish can be said to have become a literary language, and 
that books began to appear in it. It soon made rapid progress 
and supplanted the Latin, becoming the language of the state 
and of the higher classes generally. Many books now came 
out in it ; particularly in poetry, history, and theology, and this 


is commonly reckoned its golden age. In the seventeenth 
century it declined, the influence of the Jesuits prevailed, and 
Latin again came into common use. In the eighteenth cen- 
tury, during the reign of Stanislaus Augustus, it revived, and 
in spite of the great political changes that have since taken 
place, it has continued to advance. Now its literature is ex- 
tensive and flourishing. It possesses a number of distin- 
guished writers, as poets, dramatists, historians, novelists, and 
the like, but few or no distinguished names have yet appeared 
in philosophy, theology, or natural science. 

The Ruthenian language is a branch of the Russian, but it 
has been greatly modified and changed by the Polish, so that 
it may be said to be a sort of intermediate language between 
the two. It is very flexible and rich in expression, being 
remarkable for the richness of its forms, and the softness of its 
sounds. Its popular poetry is particularly rich and beautiful, 
but beyond this its literature is poor, and of little value, though 
it goes back for a considerable time. Since 1845, instruction 
in the Polish language has been generally introduced into the 
schools, and now such of the Ruthenians as may be said to be 
educated, are able to speak and write the Polish language. 
Thus the Ruthenian is rapidly passing out of use, though 
of late, interest in it has been reviving. 

The Southern Slavonic dialects are the Serbian, the Croatian, 
and the Slovenian or Wendic, which are sometimes collec- 
tively termed the Ulyrian language. These dialects are nearly 
related to each other. The Serbian most nearly resembles 
the Russian, and is one of the most harmonious and vocally 
richest of the Slavonic tongues. The Croatian and Slovenian 
more nearly resemble each other than either does the Serbian. 
The Serbians use in writing a modification of the Cyrillic 
characters, of which the Russian characters are also a modifi- 
cation, while the Croatians and the Slovenians employ the 
Latin alphabet. Cyrillus based his characters upon the Greek 
alphabet. It was he and Methodius who translated the Bible 
into the ancient Slavonian or ancient Bulgarian in the middle 
of the ninth century, and this is still the authorized version of the 


Scriptures for the whole of the Slavonic race. The language in 
which it is written is called the ecclesiastical Slavonic, and is to 
the student of the Slavonic languages very much what the Gothic 
is to the student of German. The Serbians belong to the 
Greek Church, while the Croatians and Slovenians are Roman 
Catholics. There is little in the literatures of these peoples 
calling for special notice, though some fragments of Slovenian 
literature go back as far as the tenth century. Several small 
colonies of Bulgarians exist in the Banat of Hungary and 
Transylvania who speak the modern Bulgarian. This, so far as 
grammatical forms are concerned, is the most reduced among 
the Slavonic dialects. 

The Romance languages or those derived from the ancient 
Latin are in this country the Italian, the Rhaeto-Romanic, 
and the Roumanic. The Italian of all the Romance 
languages is that which stands most nearly related to the 
ancient tongue. About the end of the seventh century Latin 
began to acquire the character of the modern Italian. Its 
formation may be said to have been completed by Dante in 
the beginning of the fourteenth century, and it was still farther 
polished by the classical writers who immediately succeeded 
him. As it at present stands it is essentially a dialect of the 
Latin, although its grammatical construction is considerably 
changed by the infusion of the modern spirit into the antique 
as the character of the people underwent the same change. It 
contains many German words derived from the different nations 
who occupied in succession the northern parts of Italy, and 
some Arabic, Norman, and Spanish, left by occasional visitors 
in the S. The Italian is the most beautiful and harmonious of 
European tongues, and is rightly considered to be the best 
medium for the interpretation of real poetic feeling. The 
Friulian or Friaulian is a dialect of the Italian spoken in a 
small district in the S.W. of Gorz-Gradisca. It has been con- 
siderably modified by the introduction of foreign elements. 

The Rhaeto-Romanic or Romanic is spoken in the Swiss 
canton of the Grisons and in the adjoining districts of Tyrol, 
forming a portion of the Ancient Rhaetia. It is nearly related 


to the Italian, but characterized by the presence of Rhaetian 
elements. Nearly allied to it is the Ladin, which is still 
spoken in some of the remote valleys of Tyrol, but both these 
dialects are gradually dying out and German taking their place. 

The Roumanic or Wallachian is the least genuine or 
marked of the languages derived from the Latin. It is de- 
scended from the language spoken in the Roman province of 
Dacia, but so little does it contain of the Latin element that 
it is only recently that scholars have agreed upon classing it 
among the Romance languages. Its grammatical construction 
and material composition however testify to its Latin extraction. 
About one half of it is borrowed from the German, Slavonian, 
Turkish, and other sources. The Latin , part of the language 
has much of the Italian form, and had assumed it as early as 
the fifteenth century. There are two dialects, the Dacian or 
Daco-Roumanic, which is spoken N. of the Danube, and the 
Thracian or Macedo-Roumanic S. of that river. The former 
has received a certain amount of literary polish, the latter is 
more mixed with Greek and Albanian words. 

Among the other languages spoken less extensively in the coun- 
try may be mentioned the Albanian, which is a strange admixture 
of Greek, Latin, German, Slavonic, and Turkish terms, and shows 
in many of its grammatical forms a closer affinity to the Sanscrit 
than the ancient Greek. The Modern Greek and the Arme- 
nian are also spoken in some few parts. The Jews, though a 
pretty numerous race, have no special language, but make use 
of that of the people among whom they are; and the same may be 
said of the gipsies, who while using their own language among 
themselves adopt one or other of the languages of the country 
for intercourse with others. 

The number of newspapers published in the monarchy in 1875 
was 1201, of which 876 appeared in Austria and 325 in Hun- 
gary. The languages in which they were severally printed were : 
German 663, Magyar 194, Czech 116, Italian 62, Polish 53, 
Slovenian 35, Servian and Croatian 13, Ruthenian 9, Slovak 14, 
Roumanic 12, Greek 2, Hebrew 15, French 2, several languages 
11. Of these 293 in Austria and 151 in Hungary were political 



papers. The entire number of sheets issued amounted to 
83,100,000 in Austria and 19,000,000 in Hungary. In 1876, 
1902 books were printed in German, 692 in Slavonic, 19 in 
Italian, and 727 in Magyar. 

Religion. — The religion of the people corresponds very much 
with their nationality, a circumstance which no doubt tends 
greatly to keep up their differences. The Germans, as a rule, 
are Roman Catholics where they form the great mass of the 
population, but where they have come into the country as 
colonists, they are generally Protestants. The Czechs and 
Moravians are almost entirely Catholics, while the Slovaks, 
though when near the Moravians and Poles Catholics, are 
when among the Magyars in a large degree Protestant, and 
when near the Ruthenians many of them belong to the Greek 
Catholic Church. The Poles, Slovenians, and Croatians are 
Roman Catholics, while the Ruthenians belong to the Greek 
Catholic Church, and only a small portion of them in Bukowina 
and the neighbouring part of Hungary are attached to the 
Oriental Greek Church. The Latin races in the W. are through- 
out Roman Catholics, while the Roumanians in Hungary and 
Bukowina belong for the most part to the Oriental Greek 
Church, and in Transylvania the majority are connected 
with the Greek Catholic Church. The Serbians belong 
almost entirely to the Oriental Greek Church. The following 
table gives the numbers belonging to the principal religious 
sects according to the Census of 1869. 




Roman Catholics . . 
Greek Catholics 
Oriental Greek Church 
Lutherans .... 
Calvinists .... 
Unitarians .... 


Other Christian sects . 
Sects not Christian 







820, 200 


















The Roman Catholics form 66.65 per cent, of the entire 
population, and are in a majority in almost all the provinces. 
They are much more numerous however in Austria, where they 
form 80.37 P er cent, of the population, than in Hungary where 
they do not exceed 48.67 per cent. In Salzburg, Carniola, and 
Tyrol, they comprise almost without exception the entire 
population. In Styria, the Protestants form only 1 per cent, 
of the population, in Upper Austria 2, and in Carinthia 5, 
the rest being Roman Catholics. In Lower Austria, there 
are 96 per cent. Catholics, 2 per cent. Protestants, and 2 per 
cent. Jews ; in the Maritime District, 99 per cent. Catholics, 
and 1 per cent. Jews ; in Bohemia, 96 per cent. Catholics, 2 
per cent. Protestants, and 2 per cent. Jews ; in Moravia, 95 per 
cent. Catholics, 3 per cent. Protestants, and 2 per cent. Jews ; 
in Silesia, 85 per cent. Catholics, 14 per cent. Protestants, and 
1 per cent. Jews. In Galicia, there are only 46 per cent. 
Roman Catholics to 43 per cent. Greek Catholics, and 1 1 per 
cent. Jews ; in Bukowina, 1 1 per cent. Roman Catholics and 4 
per cent. Greek Catholics to 73 per cent, belonging to the 
Oriental Greek Church, 2 per cent. Protestants and 10 percent. 
Jews. In Dalmatia, there are 82 per cent. Roman Catholics 
and 18 per cent, belonging to the Oriental Greek Church. In 
Hungary and Transylvania, there are 45 per cent. Roman 
Catholics, 12 per cent. Greek Catholics, 23 per cent. Protestants 
(8 Lutherans and 15 Calvinists), 13 per cent. Oriental Greek 
Church, 5 per cent. Jews, the rest Unitarians and other smaller 
sects. In Croatia and Slavonia, the Roman Catholics amount 
to 84 per cent., and there are 14 per cent, of the Oriental Greek 
Church, 1 per cent. Protestants, and 1 per cent. Jews. Finally 
in the Military Frontier, there are 43 per cent. Roman Catholics, 
1 per cent. Greek Catholics, 55 per cent, of the Oriental 
Greek Church, and 1 per cent. Jews. 

The Roman Catholic is the established religion of the 
country, and Austria has always remained strongly attached 
to that faith; but her sovereigns have in general resisted the 
pretensions of the popes to temporal power, so that their 
authority is not so unlimited here as in some other Catholic 


countries. Papal bulls and decretals are valid only after they 
have received the sanction of the monarch, who also has the 
nomination of the bishops and archbishops, and the power of 
imposing taxes on Church property. There are n arch- 
bishops, 7 in Austria (at Vienna, Salzburg, Gorz, Prague, 
Olmiitz, Lemberg, and Zara), and 4 in Hungary (at Gran, 
Erlau, Kalocsa, and Agram). There are also 45 bishops, 
22,305 secular clergy, 9820 monks, and 7754 nuns. 

The Greek Catholic Church or the United Greek Church 
is composed of those Greek Christians who have been in- 
duced to acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope, while on the 
other hand they are permitted to hold to all the peculiar 
usages of the Greek Church which do not affect fundamental 
doctrines, as the use of the Greek language in divine service, 
the giving of the cup to the laity in the communion, the mar- 
riage of the priests, &c. It has 2 archbishops, 1 at Lemberg 
and 1 at Blasendorf in Transylvania, and 4785 secular clergy. 
There is also a small body of Armenian Catholics similarly con- 
nected with the Roman Catholic Church, and having an arch- 
bishop at Lemberg, but altogether it numbers only about 8000 

The Protestants rank, in point of numbers, next to the 
Roman Catholic and the Greek Catholic churches, and com- 
prise 1 0.1 per cent, of the population, being 1.8 percent, in 
Austria, and 8.3 per cent, in Hungary. Of these 3.9 per cent, 
are Lutherans, and 6.2 per cent. Calvinists, the former being 
the more numerous in Austria, the latter in Hungary. In 
Austria and Hungary ecclesiastical affairs are conducted 
separately. In the former they are managed by an Upper 
Ecclesiastical Council in Vienna, and a General Synod. The 
former is the highest governing body in spiritual and adminis- 
trative matters. It is composed of representatives of each 
division, and in all that concerns the Protestant Church gene- 
rally, the members act together, but in what more particularly 
concerns only one of the divisions of it, they act separately. The 
General Synod is composed of representatives of the; inferior 


courts of each division, namely, the superintendents, the 
superintendential curators, the seniors, a lay representative from 
each seniority, and a representative of the Protestant Theo- 
logical Faculty at Vienna. They, as a rule, meet every six 
years, usually in Vienna, and consider matters more particularly 
relating to ecclesiastical law and government. They sit 
separately, but may come together for the consideration 
of matters of common interest. There are 9 Superin- 
tendences (5 Lutheran), having each a superintendent as 
its head, with a managing committee, and a superinten- 
dential assembly. Under these are the Seniorities, of which 
there are 21 (15 Lutheran), with similarly a senior, a 
managing committee, and a senioral assembly. Following these 
are the Presbyteries and local assemblies, for the management 
of parochial matters. In Hungary the Synod passes the laws 
for the government of both sections of the church, while the 
General Convention directs and controls matters connected 
with the churches and schools. Under these are 8 Superin- 
tendences (4 Lutheran), and superintendential Conventions ; 
74 Seniorities (36 Lutheran) and senioral Conventions ; Pres- 
byteries and local Conventions. 

The Eastern or Oriental Greek Church embraces 8.52 per 
cent, of the entire population, being 16.73 of that of Hungary, 
and 2.27 of that of Austria. Its affairs are conducted by an 
Episcopal Synod, and it has in Austria 3 bishops, at Czerno- 
witz, Zara, and Cattaro ; and in Hungary, 2 archbishops, at 
Karlowitz and Hermannstadt, the former having the title of 
Patriarch, and having under him 6 bishops, the latter having 
under him 2 bishops. There are also 3 Church Congresses for 
the management of internal affairs — one for Bukowina, and one 
each for the Serbian and Wallachian races. The dioceses or 
eparchs are divided into Proto-presbyteries, and these into 
parishes. There are altogether about 4000 secular clergy, and 
about 300 monks in 40 cloisters. 

The Unitarian Church (in Transylvania) has an Upper 
Consistory and a Synod for the direction of its affairs. 


Under these are 8 Dioceses, in which Diocesan Assemblies are 

The Jewish religion is conducted by rabbis, preachers, and 
religious teachers, of which there are in Austria about 390, and 
in Hungary, about 350. 

Education. — Previous to 1848, the monarchy was very far 
behind in the matter of education ; but since that time great 
improvements have been effected, and an entire change has 
taken place. The greatest attention is now given to the 
subject of education, schools of all kinds have been 
established throughout the country, improved systems of 
teaching have been introduced, and instruction is open to all, 
without regard to class or creed, at a very small cost, or even 
gratuitously to such as are unable to pay for it. 1 It still, how- 
ever, continues to be very much under the control of the 
priests, and many of the teachers are ecclesiastics. The 
Roman Catholic religion forms an essential part of the instruc- 
tion in all public schools, except those established for special 
subjects. The Protestant and Oriental Greek Churches have, 
as a rule, their own common schools, and where this is not 
the case, they have to send their children to the public schools. 
The Jews, also, in places where they have no schools of their 
own, are obliged to send their children to Christian schools. 

Matters connected with education are now managed in 
Austria under a law passed in 1869; m Hungary, under one 
passed in 1868 ; and in Croatia and Slavonia, under one of 
1874. The school age in Austria extends from the end of 
the 6th to the completion of the 14th year, and in Hungary, 
Istria, Dalmatia, Galicia and Bukowina, to the end of the 1 2th 
year ; but in the latter case the children are expected to attend 
a repetition school ( Wiederholungschule) at least once a week 

1 The Right Hon. W. E. Forster, speaking at Bradford on 9th October, 
1879, said that "he had just come from Austria, and in going through the 
towns and villages of the Tyrol, he found good schools, compulsory by-laws, 
and technical schools meeting him everywhere ; and that it was quite evident 
that as far as education goes, Austria will obtain an advantage for its work- 


for three years more. The necessity for the erection of a school 
exists in all places where, within a circle of three miles, there are 
40 children who are more than two miles from a school. The 
number of teachers depends on the number of scholars, so that 
when these amount to more than 80, a second teacher is 
deemed necessary, and when over 160, a third. According to 
the census of 1869, the number of persons in Hungary over six 
years of age, who were able to read and write was 3,990,519 
or 31.3 per cent. ; who could merely read, 1,344,292, or 10.5 
per cent. 5 and who neither read nor write, 7,416,503, or 58.2 
per cent. The proportions varied in different parts of the 
kingdom : thus, in Hungary and Transylvania 32.7 per cent, 
could read and write, in the Military Frontier 20.7 per cent., 
and in Croatia and Slavonia, only 15 per cent. We do not 
possess the same means for determining the state of education 
in Austria, but taking the number of recruits joining the army 
during the years 1872-74, we find that for the entire Monarchy 
only 52.5 per cent, of them are able to write, being for the 
western half 54.7, and for the eastern 51.4. In many of the 
provinces of Austria, however, the percentage is much higher. 
Thus, in Lower Austria, it amounts to 94.2; in Silesia to 91.2; in 
Salzburg to 88.5 ; in Bohemia to 84.7 ; and in Styria to 73.7 ; 
while on the other hand it is as low as 15.3 in Galicia; 7.3 in 
Carniola ; 6.2 in Bukowina; and 1.6 in Dalmatia. 

The educational institutions may be divided into four 
classes : the lower, middle, and high schools, and the schools 
devoted to special subjects. The lower schools include the com- 
mon elementary schools, and the burgh or higher elementary 
schools. In 1875 there were altogether in the Monarchy 31,418 
of the former, and 322 of the latter; with 43,494 male and 
female teachers, and 3,723,600 scholars out of 5,463,900 
within the school age. This gives 67 per cent, attending school 
out of those that ought to be there — 66.2 for Austria, and 68.1 
for Hungary. In some of the provinces of Austria, however, 
the proportion is as high as 94 and 96 ; in others, as low as 17 
and 2 7. In the common elementary schools, the subjects 


taught are reading, writing, arithmetic, religion, singing, the 
elements of natural science and history, with gymnastics. In 
addition to these, there are taught in the burgh schools, literary 
composition, advanced natural science, geometry, book-keep- 
ing and drawing. Besides these, there are a number of Kin- 
dergartens, and establishments for the care of children under 
the school age during the day, so as to enable the mothers to 
go out and work. In 1875 there were 142 establishments for 
the care of young children and 75 Kindergartens in connexion 
with the common schools, and 235 independent establishments 
of both kinds in Austria; and 211 similar establishments in 
Hungary. Some are maintained by societies, others by 
private individuals ; at some a small charge is made, at others 
the benefits are afforded gratuitously. In 1876, there were in 
Austria 26 orphan asylums, having 556 boys, and %$$ girls. 
There are also numerous industrial schools for girls, and trade 
and agricultural schools for boys. The schools are under the 
management of local, district, and provincial school boards ; 
and there are district and provincial school inspectors, for 
visiting and reporting upon the different schools. 

The middle schools comprise the gymnasia, the real schools, 
and the real gymnasia. The gymnasia are preparatory insti- 
tutions to the universities. A complete gymnasium provides 
for a course of eight years' study, and is divided into two parts 
of four years each. The lower course not only prepares for the 
higher, but is also complete in itself, for those that do not wish 
to go any farther. The branches of study include Latin, Greek, 
and modern languages, geography, history, religion, mathe- 
matics, natural history, physics, writing, drawing, singing, and 
gymnastics. In passing from one class to another, the scholars 
undergo a very searching examination. The under gymnasia, 
of which there are a considerable number, only provide for a 
four years' course. The real schools are designed to afford a 
course of instruction, preparatory to the technical high schools, 
and also suitable for those intending to enter upon industrial 
pursuits. The course extends over seven years, of which four 


are spent in the under, and three in the upper school. The 
former not only serves a preparation for the latter, but is also 
complete in itself, — fitting for the lower kinds of industrial 
occupations. The branches taught include history, geography, 
arithmetic, mathematics, writing, drawing, book-keeping, ex- 
changes, natural history, technology, &c. The real gymnasia 
combine the leading features of the two others, the under 
course of four years being a common one, and the upper course 
also of four years, being divided into a humanity side and a real 
side. In Austria in 1876 there were 91 gymnasia with 
24,030 scholars; 61 real gymnasia with 11,898 scholars; and 78 
real schools, with 10,237 scholars. In Hungary in 1875, there were 
155 gymnasia, with 29,189 scholars, and 410 real schools, with 
9,186 scholars. With the exception of the gymnasium at 
Teschen, which is Lutheran, and the gymnasium at Suczawa and 
the real school at Czernowitz, which belong to the Oriental 
Greek Church, the middle schools in Austria are all Roman 
Catholic, but they are open to scholars of every creed. Of 
the gymnasia in Hungary: — Z^> are Roman Catholic; 3 Greek 
Catholic ; 3 Oriental Greek ; 5 7 Protestant ; and 4 Unitarian : 
of the real schools, 38 are established by the state or the town, 
and are therefore unsectarian; 2 are Jewish; 1 Roman 
Catholic; and 1 Greek Catholic. In Austria, 72 gymnasia, 
35 real gymnasia, and 4 real schools, are either wholly or 
partly supported by the state. Of the rest, 9 real gymnasia, 
and 12 real schools, are supported by the provinces; 13 gym- 
nasia and 2 real schools by religious bodies ; 6 gymnasia, 
17 real gymnasia, and 17 real schools, by communities, and 
3 real schools by private individuals. 

The high schools are the universities and the technical in- 
stitutions. Of the former, there are 7 in Austria,, namely, 
at Vienna, Gratz, Innsbruck, Prague, Lemberg, Cracow 
and Czernowitz ; and 3 in Hungary — at Buda-Pesth, Klausen- 
burg and Agram, having in all 990 professors and teachers, and 
11,850 students. The university of Vienna is the largest — 
not only in Austria, but in Germany — having (in 1876) no 



fewer than 283 professors and teachers, and 3810 students. 
It is particularly distinguished in the departments of medicine, 
law, natural science, and Oriental languages. The medical 
school in Vienna is reckoned the first in Germany. The 
university of Buda-Pesth had 149 professors and teachers, 
and 2566 students, and that at Prague 172 of the former, and 
1885 of the latter. Each university— except those after men- 
tioned — has four complete faculties, for theology (Roman 
Catholic), law and political economy, medicine and surgery, 
and philosophy. The universities at Lemberg and Czernowitz 
have no medical faculty, and the theological faculty in the 
latter is of the Oriental Greek Church. In Hungary, the 
university of Buda-Pesth is the only one having four faculties, 
that at Klausenburg having only a medical and a philoso- 
phical faculty, and that at A gram, theological, law, and philoso-. 
phical faculties. The theological and law courses occupy 4 
years each, the medical 5, and the philosophical 3. 

The technical high schools have for their object, the im- 
parting of a high scientific education to their pupils. These 
generally enter from the upper real schools, and the complete 
technical course extends over five years. There are 8 of these 
institutions in the Monarchy, namely : — at Vienna, Gratz, 
Prague (a German and a Czech), Briinn, Lemberg, Cracow, 
and Buda-Pesth — having in all 346 teachers, and 4273 pupils. 
Those of Vienna, Prague and Lemburg, have each four depart- 
ments — for engineering, architecture, machinery, and technical 
chemistry ; those of Gratz, Briinn and Buda-Pesth have no 
architectural department, and that of Cracow has only a 
technical and a commercial course. 

The special high schools or educational institutions include 
a number of theological seminaries connected with the different 
religious sects of the country, and academies and schools for 
law, commerce, navigation, mining, manufactures, agriculture, 
forest-management, the fine arts, military training, and the 
training of teachers. Besides the theological faculties in the 
universities, the Roman Catholics have theological faculties at 


Salzburg and Olmiitz, 17 episcopal seminaries, and 46 other 
seminaries, having in all 1775 students. The Greek Catholics 
have 4 theological seminaries with 217 students ; the Oriental 
Greek Church 5 seminaries with 246 students \ the Protestants, 
a theological faculty at Vienna, and 13 seminaries with 473 
students ; the Unitarians, a college at Klausenburg with 23 
students ; and the Jews, a rabbinical school at Pressburg, with 
8 students. The Oriental Academy at Vienna, for the train- 
ing of officials for diplomatic and consular service in the east, 
has 11 teachers and 38 students; besides which there are 14 
law academies in Hungary (6 royal, 2 episcopal, and 6 Pro- 
testant), having together 103 teachers, and 1580 students. The 
trade and manufacture schools are numerous and of different 
kinds — some for special, others for more general objects — 
but all having more or less in view, the improvement of 
apprentices and journeymen, in their special callings. They 
are established usually by corporations, companies, or private 
firms, and are mostly devoted to affording instruction in such 
arts as building, weaving, turning, cabinet -making, wood-cut- 
ting, glass-making, printing, drawing, modelling, lace-making, 
straw-plaiting, sewing, knitting and the like. The principal of 
these are at Vienna, Gratz, Prague, and Buda-Pesth. The art 
school in Vienna has 13 teachers, and 240 scholars. Altogether 
there were in the Monarchy in 1876, 197 of these schools, 
having 782 teachers, and 18,500 scholars. There is a com- 
mercial and nautical school at Trieste, having 20 teachers and 
106 scholars, and nautical schools at Zara, Spalato, Ragusa, 
Cattaro, &c. There are mining academies at Leoben and 
Pribram, and a mining and forest academy at Schemnitz, with 
various schools for miners, in the different mining districts. 
In 1873 an agricultural school was established in Vienna, 
which in 1876 had 41 professors and 170 pupils. In addition 
to these there were in Austria 36 agricultural schools, 22 for 
vine and fruit culture, 6 for forest management, and 5 for farriery, 
having in all 389 teachers and 1880 pupils. In Hungary there 
are 3 agricultural academies — at Altenburg, Reszthely, and 

F 2 


Kreutz, having 54 teachers and 270 scholars; and 14 agricul- 
tural and the like schools with 600 scholars. For the fine arts 
there are the Academy of the Fine Arts at Vienna, having 22 
teachers, and, in the 12 special schools, 215 pupils; the 
Academy of Painting at Gratz with 40 pupils ; the Art Academy 
at Prague with 70 pupils ; and the school for the fine arts at 
Cracow. For instruction in music there are the Conservatoire 
of Music in Vienna (650 pupils), that in Prague (120), the 
Academy of Music in Buda-Pesth, the school of the Society of 
the Friends of Church Music in Vienna (150), that of the Music 
Society of Linz (210), of the Cathedral Music Society at 
Salzburg, and numerous other music-schools, amounting in all 
to about 150, with about 450 teachers and 8000 pupils. 

Of lateyears special attention has been given to the train- 
ing and properly qualifying of teachers for the common schools ; 
and normal schools for both sexes have been established, 
where a course of instruction, extending over four years, is 
imparted. In Austria, in 1876, there were 42 of these schools 
for males, and 23 for females, with 6900 male, and 3362 female 
pupils; and in Hungary, in 1875, 61 schools, with 2800 
pupils of both sexes. 

The military special schools for the training of officers, are 
the Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt for the infantry and 
cavalry, with 48 teachers and 300 pupils; the Technical 
Military Academy in Vienna for the artillery and engineers, 
with 43 teachers and 250 pupils ; the veterinary school in 
Vienna with 12 teachers and 118 pupils, and the marine 
academy in Fiume with 37 teachers and no pupils. There 
are also special courses of instruction given in Vienna for 
staff-officers ; advanced instruction for officers in the infantry, 
cavalry, artillery, and engineer branches of the service ; and in- 
struction in the art of war. In addition to these a number of 
cadet schools have recently been established in Vienna, 
Prague, Buda-Pesth and other places. 

There are 14 deaf and dumb institutions in Austria, having 
in all 850 pupils, and 1 in Hungary (at Waitzen) ; and 6 in- 


stitutions for the blind with about 500 pupils. In addition to 
these there are a number of private schools for special objects 
in all the large towns. 

In connexion with the universities and many of the higher 
educational institutions are libraries, museums of natural his- 
tory and antiquities, botanic gardens, observatories, chemical 
laboratories, &c. There are also valuable libraries belonging to 
various ecclesiastical bodies, to societies of different kinds, and 
to many of the large towns. 





The great majority of the people of Austria-Hungary are 
engaged in agricultural pursuits, or in connexion with the 
forests, which are extensive and valuable. According to the 
last census, 7,497,500 males or 37.13 per cent, of the popula- 
tion of Austria, and 5,015,899 males or 32.54 per cent, of that 
of Hungary were thus employed. These sums are exclusive 
of women and children, which, if we include will raise them to 
more than double, so that it is estimated that probably nearly 
three-fourths of the entire population are so employed. 

The land in general is very fertile, although great differences 
exist in different parts owing to special circumstances. It is 
estimated that 93.56 per cent, of the entire area of Austria, 
and 83. 1 1 per cent, of that of Hungary are productive. The 
proportion is highest in Bohemia, Silesia, Dalmatia, and 
Galicia, where it exceeds 96 per cent., and Moravia, and Lower 
Austria, where it exceeds 95 ; and lowest in Salzburg, Tyrol, 
and the Military Frontier, where it is between 80 and 82 per 
cent. Of the productive land, 36.5 per cent, is arable ; 1.1 in 
vineyards, 13.4 gardens and meadows, 16.1 pasturage, 32.6 
forests, and 0.3 reeds and rushes. The following table gives 
the area occupied by each in English acres : — ■ 





Vineyards .... 
Meadows and gardens 
Pasturage .... 


Reeds and rushes . 














The provinces having the largest proportion of arable land 
are Moravia, Bohemia, Silesia, Galicia, Lower and Upper 
Austria, Hungary, Croatia, and Slavonia. Austria is still 
behind many other countries in agricultural matters, although in 
this respect great improvements have recently taken place. 
The most extensively wine-producing districts are Hungary 
and the adjoining lands, with Dalmatia, Lower Austria, the 
Maritime District, and Southern Tyrol. The Alpine lands 
proper, the Maritime District, Bukowina, Dalmatia, and the 
Military Frontier, are on account of their great extent of pasture- 
land, great cattle-rearing districts. Particularly rich in forests 
are the Alpine lands, Upper Austria, Bukowina, Transylvania, 
Croatia, and Slavonia. 

The acreage under the principal crops was, according to the 
latest returns, as follows : — 




Wheat . 
Rye. . 
Barley . 
Oats . 
Maize . 













4,693,103 ' 


Total . 




These six principal crops occupied 69 per cent, of the 
arable land in Austria, and 67.3 per cent, in Hungary. The 
rest was taken up with less extensive crops, or was lying 
fallow. The principal of the less extensive crops, were 
olives, 52,174 acres (38,301 being in Dalmatia, and 10,625 m 
I stria) ; chestnuts, 3130 acres (2322 being in Southern 
Tyrol); fruits of different kinds, 655,208 acres in Hungary, 
and 49,287 in Austria; flax, 259,849 acres in Austria, and 
21,162 in Hungary; and hemp, 91,822 acres in Austria, 
and 116,533 in Hungary. 



The estimated average annual produce of the six principal 
crops in English bushels, is as follows : — 











43>3 8 5>° 00 





The value of an average crop of the different kinds of grain 
is estimated at 95,000,000^ being 48,400,000/. for Austria, and 
46,600,000/. for Hungary. The grain produced is not only suffi- 
cient for home consumption, but usually affords a considerable 
amount for export, which varies greatly in different years, but may 
be taken to average in value, from 2,000,000/. to 3,000,000/. 
The principal grain producing districts are Hungary, Bohemia, 
Galicia, Moravia, Lower and Upper Austria. The potato is 
extensively cultivated only in the north, chiefly in Bohemia, 
Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukowina, and the north of Hungary. 
In the south it is much less cultivated, and only to a small 
extent in the Alpine districts. Flax and hemp are grown in 
all parts of the country, flax prevailing in the north-west, and 
hemp in the east and south. The annual produce is estimated at 
293,000,000 lbs. of which about f are flax, and f hemp. Tobacco 
is a state monopoly, and confined to Hungary, Galicia, Buko- 
wina, and Tyrol. The annual produce is about 101,250,000 
lbs., of which Hungary yields about 93,000,000 lbs. Hops 
are grown to a great extent in Bohemia, and of late years 
also in Upper Austria. The average crop is reckoned at about 
44,000,000 lbs., of which Bohemia produces about half. The 
valley of the Eger is considered to yield the best hops. 
The cabbage is very extensively cultivated, being much used 
by the inhabitants, especially in the form of Sour Krout, and is 
also largely given to cattle. Turnips are extensively grown, 


especially in the S., and beet-root more particularly in the N. 
The growth of rape-seed has of late become much more ex- 
tensive than formerly, especially in Bohemia, Moravia, 
Galicia, Upper and Lower Austria, Hungary, and Transylvania. 
The average annual produce is about 4,320,000 bushels. 

Austria-Hungary ranks third among the wine-producing 
countries of Europe — after France and Italy, and some of the 
wines of Hungary, as Tokay, are justly celebrated. The 
amount annually produced in the country is estimated at 
332,200,000 gallons, of which Hungary produces more than 
two-thirds. The principal of the other wine-producing pro- 
vinces are Dalmatia, Lower Austria, Styria, and Moravia. 
After corn and timber, this forms the most valuable pro- 
duct of the soil. Fruits are largely grown, particularly in 
Lower Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Upper Austria, Styria, 
Carinthia, and parts of Tyrol and Vorarlberg. Much of 
the fruit produced is used in the manufacture of cider and 
other drinks. In the S. of Hungary, and adjoining lands, the 
plum ranks first among fruits, and from it a kind of plum 
brandy is very largely made. The W. and S. of Hungary, 
Transylvania, Croatia, Slavonia, and the Military Frontier are 
great fruit-producing districts. A considerable quantity of the 
fruit grown is annually exported. The forests occupy nearly 
one-third of the whole of the productive area of the country, 
and are estimated to yield annually about 7,416,482,000 cubic 
feet of timber. The annual value of the various productions 
of the soil, exclusive of grain, is reckoned at 91,600,000/. 
for Austria, and 78,000,000/. for Hungary, being together 
169,600,000/., or including the grain crops no less a sum than 

The Monarchy is particularly distinguished for the number 
and the superiority of its horses, for the improvement of 
which numerous studs exist all over the country. The breeding 
of horses is more or less extensively carried on in all the 
provinces, but more especially in Hungary, Transylvania, 
Bukowina, Galicia, Styria, Bohemia, Moravia, Lower and 


Upper Austria. The total number of horses in the country in 
1869 was, 3,525,842 of which, 2,158,819 were in Hungary. 
Comparing the number of horses with the population, we find 
that for every 1000 of the latter there were 140 of the former 
in Hungary, and 70 in Austria. Galicia is the only province 
of Austria which has over 100 horses to every 1000 of its in- 
habitants, having 128. In Hungary, the Military Frontier 
stands first, having 147 horses to every 1000 of its population. 
Since the date of the last census, the number of horses has 
been increased, and more attention has been given to their 
improvement owing to the stimulus imparted by prizes, 
exhibitions, races, &c. All kinds of horses are found here from 
the heaviest to the lightest, from the largest to the smallest. 
The most beautiful horses are those of Transylvania and 
Bukowina, the lightest and fleetest those of Hungary, and the 
largest and strongest those of Salzburg. The smallest horses 
are found in Croatia, and the neighbouring lands. The horses 
of Styria, Carinthia, Northern Tyrol, and Upper Austria, are 
also famous. In Dalmatia, the Maritime District, and Southern 
Tyrol, horses are less numerous, and mules, and asses, in a 
great measure take their place. Of the 13,981 mules in 
Austria, 45 per cent, were in Dalmatia, and 30 per cent, in 
the Maritime District and Southern Tyrol; and of the 61,831 
asses 28 per cent, were in the former, and 21 per cent, in the 
latter. In Hungary there were 2266 mules, and 30,482 asses. 
Austria-Hungary is not remarkable as a cattle-rearing country. 
Indeed except in certain districts, particularly among the Alps, 
it must be considered to be much behind in this oranch of in- 
dustry. The finest cattle are to be found in the Alpine regions, 
— in other parts the breeds are generally very inferior. In 
1869 the Monarchy possessed 1 2, 704,405 head of cattle, of which 
5,279,193 were in Hungary, 2,070,572 in Galicia, and 1,602,015 
in Bohemia. The cattle of Hungary are generally of very 
inferior quality. In proportion to their extent, Upper Austria, 
Silesia, Bohemia, Styria, and Galicia, contain the greatest 
number of cattle, and on the other hand Hungary, Tyrol, the 


Military Frontier, the Maritime District, and Dalmatia, contain 
the smallest number, — attention in these latter provinces being 
more given to sheep. In proportion to the population, Austria 
had 367 cattle for each 1000 of its inhabitants, Hungary 341, 
and the Monarchy 357. In Salzburg the proportion was as 
high as 1105 per 1000, Carinthia 692, Upper Austria 650, 
Styria 527, and Tyrol 525. The rearing of sheep receives a 
large share of attention. It is carried on to a considerable 
extent in all the provinces, and in some, very extensively. 
Much has been done of late years in the way of improving the 
breeds, particularly in Moravia, Silesia, Bohemia, Lower and 
Upper Austria, and Hungary. In no part of the Monarchy 
has sheep-rearing reached so high a point as in Moravia, and 
Silesia. The main object has been the improvement of the 
wool, and with this view the merino and the other flne-woolled 
breeds have been introduced. Some attention, however, is 
also given to the fattening qualities. For mutton, the best 
sheep are those of Lower Austria, Carinthia, the Maritime 
District, Dalmatia, and the Military Frontier. The sheep are 
frequently driven for the sake of pasture, from one part of the 
country to another, and even into other countries, as Italy, 
Roumania, &c. The total number of sheep, in the country 
in 1869, was 20,102,393, of which over 15,000,000 were in 
Hungary. Dalmatia, Hungary, and the Military Frontier, are 
most largely stocked with sheep. Dalmatia had 1520 sheep 
to every 1000 of its population, Hungary 1053, and the 
Military Frontier 574. Sheep are least plentiful in Styria, and 
Carniola. The goat, which has been called the poor man's 
cow, is also to be found in all parts of the country, but is most 
common in the mountainous districts, and is owned chiefly by 
the poorer classes of the rural population. The total number 
of goats in the country, in 1869, was 1,552,055, of which 
572,951 were in Hungary. Dalmatia, however, is the great 
country of the goat, where there are no fewer than 280,656, after 
which follow Bohemia with 194,273, Tyrol with 137,698, and 
Moravia with 8,383. The number of swine in the Monarchy 


was 6,994,752, of which 4,443,279 were in Hungary. They 
are most numerous in those provinces that contain extensive 
oak and beech forests, or where there are many distilleries or 
breweries. Hence they are most plentiful in Croatia and 
Slavonia, the Military Frontier, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, 
Styria, Upper and Lower Austria, and Bohemia. 

Since the date of the last census the numbers of these 
animals in the Monarchy have generally diminished, except 
that in Hungary the sheep and the goats have largely in- 
creased. It is estimated that nearly 12,000,000 cwt. of flesh, 
1,960,000 cwt. of butter, and 1,658,000 cwt. of cheese are 
annually produced. The annual produce of wool is about 
400,000 cwt., but mostly of common or inferior kinds. The 
finer wools are chiefly produced in Moravia, Silesia, Bohemia, 
Lower Austria, and certain parts of Hungary and Galicia. 
Poultry are common in all parts of the Monarchy, particularly 
in the neighbourhood of large towns where they are in demand. 
The common fowl is the most abundant, and after it the goose. 
In Bohemia alone there are about 15,000,000 common fowls 
and 4,000,000 geese. In Moravia, Silesia, Lower Austria, 
Hungary, Transylvania, and the Military Frontier, they are 
also common. Ducks, capons, and turkeys are more common 
in the South than in the North. The capons of Styria are 
especially noted. Pigeons are everywhere common. The 
value of the poultry of all kinds in the Monarchy is estimated 
at not less than 10,000,000/. 

Bees are extensively kept, particularly in the provinces 
of Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Bohemia, Styria, and 
Carinthia. In Carinthia and Lower Austria they are kept 
most skilfully, although not so extensively as in some of the other 
provinces. In 1869, there were 1,531,150 hives in the Mon- 
archy, of which 517,710 were in Hungary and Transylvania, 
257,493 in Galicia, and 140,892 in Bohemia. The annual 
average produce is estimated at 25,000,000 lbs. of honey, and 
1,980,000 lbs. of wax. The silkworm is cultivated in certain 
parts of the Southern districts, particularly in Southern Tyrol. 


The annual yield of cocoons is about 3,520,000 lbs., of which 
nearly one-half is obtained in Southern Tyrol. Game of 
various kinds are common, particularly in Bohemia, Moravia, 
Silesia, Lower and Upper Austria, Hungary, Galicia, and 
Bukowina. The hare is common everywhere ; red deer are 
found in Hungary, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, 
and Tyrol j and wild boars in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, 
Galicia, and Hungary. Partridges are common in most parts 
of the country; pheasants are most numerous in Bohemia, 
but are found also in Hungary, Styria, Moravia, and Lower 
Austria. Bears are met with in the Carpathian and Alpine 
regions, and also in Dalmatia and the Maritime District ; and 
the wolf is common in Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, 
Slavonia, Galicia, and Bukowina. The rivers and lakes in 
general abound in fish, which are also plentiful along the coast. 
In Dalmatia in particular, fishing constitutes an important 
branch of industry, affording employment to many of the 
population. In the season of 1875-6, the fishing along the 
coast, and on the islands, was estimated to yield 174,000/. The 
tunny and sardines are largely caught. 

Mining l with the industries depending upon it forms one of 
the most important pursuits of the people after agriculture. In 
1869, 104,342 men were employed in the mining and smelt- 
ing works in Austria, and 50,143 in Hungary, making together 

1 Mining and every form of manufacturing industry suffered greatly from 
the monetary crisis of 1873. This was occasioned by over-speculation, 
induced by previous years of unusual prosperity. One form in which it 
manifested itself was in the construction of new lines of railway. In the 
five years from 1863 to 1868 scarcely 140 miles of new railway were opened 
annually, while in the six following years the annual average reached 930 
miles. Iron, coal, and almost every other branch of industry enjoyed for a 
time the like success. The crisis came with the sudden failure of one of the 
largest financial houses of Vienna, in consequence of which a large amount 
of stock of various kinds was at once thrown upon the market ; great de- 
pression of prices followed, the Bourse became profoundly agitated, and 
hundreds of failures followed. The result was years of depression in almost 
every branch of industry, so that in 1877 many of them were not much in 
advance of what they were in 1869. Coal is almost the only object of 
mining industry that has shown a large increase. The great want of the 
country is the want of capital to develope its great and varied resources. 


154,485 exclusive of women and children, of whom a great 
many are thus employed. In 1875 there were directly em- 
ployed in the mines, including the salt works, but excluding 
the smelting works, 76,100 men, 5700 women, and 1800 chil- 
dren in Austria, and 36,400 men, 1400 women, and 4600 
children in Hungary, making in all 124,400 persons. The 
provinces in which mining operations are chiefly carried on are 
Styria (iron and coal), Carinthia (lead and iron), Carniola 
(quicksilver), Hungary (gold, silver, copper, iron, and coal), 
Transylvania (gold and silver), Salzburg (iron), Bohemia (silver, 
lead, iron, and coal), Moravia (iron and coal), Galicia (salt). 

Gold has been obtained in the Monarchy from very 
early times, and was formerly found in greater abundance than 
at present. Yet even now Hungary and Transylvania rank 
among the first gold-producing districts of Europe. More 
than half the gold produced, is obtained in Transylvania, prin- 
cipally at Zalathna on the southern range of the Behar Moun- 
tains, where affluents of the Koros and Maros take their rise, in 
which, as well as in the Theiss and Danube, gold is also 
found. In Hungary, gold is obtained chiefly at Schemnitz and 
Kremnitz. It is also found in small quantities in Salzburg, 
Tyrol, Styria, and the Military Frontier. In 1875, Hungary 
produced 12,145 lbs. of gold ore, and Austria 242 lbs., making 
together 12,387 lbs. and yielding 51,166 ozs. of metal of the 
value of 221,500/. Silver has also been obtained from an early 
date and formerly in larger quantity than at present. Even 
now, however, this country ranks next to Russia, which pro- 
duces the largest quantity of silver of any country in Europe. 
Bohemia and Transylvania yield the largest quantities of silver 
ore. Pribram and Joachimsthal are the parts in Bohemia 
where it is chiefly found, also Zalathna in Transylvania and 
Schemnitz and Kremnitz in Hungary. It is also found in 
small quantities in Bukowina, Tyrol, Salzburg, and Styria. In 
1875, Austria produced 27,751 lbs. of silver ore, and Hungary 
229,891 lbs., making together 247,642 lbs.; from which 
1,610,168 dzs. of metal were extracted, of the value of 419,300/. 


Iron is found in all the provinces, with the exception of the 
Maritime District and Dalmatia. It is found in the Alps (in 
Styria, Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, and in a less de- 
gree in Carniola), in the southern declivities of the Carpathians 
(Hungary and Transylvania), the northern declivities of the 
Carpathians (Galicia, Bukowina and Silesia), and the mountains 
of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia. Styria and Carinthia form 
a compact iron-producing region which yields more than a third 
part of all the ore obtained in the Monarchy. The principal 
mines are at Eisenerz and Mariazell in Styria, and Hiittenberg in 
Carinthia. After these come Hungary (at Schmolnitz and Dios- 
Gyor, in the neighbourhood of Miskolez), Bohemia (Platten), 
Moravia (Blansko), Galicia (Sambor, Stry, and Sandec), and 
Transylvania. In 1875, Austria produced 14,099,680 cwt. 
of iron ore, and Hungary 7,964,860 cwt., making together 
22,064,540 cwt., and yielding 8,267,800 cwt. of wrought and 
995,460 cwt. of cast iron, of the value of 2,545,000/. 

Copper is principally obtained in Hungary, particularly in 
the neighbourhood of Schmolnitz ; then in Tyrol, Transylvania, 
Bukowina, Styria, Salzburg, and Bohemia. In 1875 44 2 ? 7 6° 
cwt. of copper ore were produced, from which 28,800 cwt. 
of copper were extracted, of the value of 132,700/. Lead 
is found principally in Carinthia, which yields about as much 
as all the rest of the country put together. The other 
provinces in which lead is found are Bohemia, Tyrol, Styria, 
Hungary, and Transylvania. The amount of lead ore pro- 
duced was 22,064,540 cwt., yielding 117,320 cwt. of lead, 
and 63,560 cwt. of Litharge, the value being 145,600/. 
Quicksilver is obtained at Idria in Carniola, where is the 
richest quicksilver-mine in Europe, after Almaden in Spain. 
In 1875 xt produced 655,940 cwt. of ore which yielded 
7760 cwt- of pure metal valued at 131,000/. 

Tin is only found in Bohemia, which produced 40,430 cwt. 
of ore, from which 3180 cwt. of metal were obtained. Zinc 
is found chiefly in Western Galicia in the neighbourhood of 
Cracow, and in smaller quantities in Carinthia, Tyrol, and 


Croatia. The amount of ore produced was 514,580 cwt, and 
of metal 69,060 cwt. The principal of other metals found in 
the country are antimony, manganese, nickel, arsenic, uranium, 
chromium, and wolfram. Antimony is obtained in Hungary, 
Bohemia, and Transylvania ; manganese in Hungary, Bohemia, 
and Carniola; nickel in Hungary, Salzburg, Bohemia, and Styria ; 
arsenic in Salzburg, Bohemia, and Silesia ; chromium in the 
Military Frontier and Styria, uranium and wolfram in Bohemia. 

The country possesses almost inexhaustible beds of coal of 
which a great part has not yet been touched upon. It exists 
in all the provinces, but the richest seams are in the moun- 
tain systems of Bohemia and Moravia. Bohemia yields more 
than half of the entire amount of coals raised in the country, 
Hungary (12 per cent), Silesia (10), Styria (11), Moravia 
(6.5); then follow Galicia, Upper Austria, Carniola, Carinthia 
and Lower Austria. An immense advance has been made in 
coal-mining of late years. In 1831, the output of coals only 
amounted to about 4,000,000 cwt., in 1865, it had risen to 
101,386,103 cwt., and in 1875, to 257,040,960 cwt. Of this 
last sum 228,017,800 cwt. were raised in Austria and 29,023,160 
in Hungary; 153,336,260 cwt. were brown coal and 103,704,700 
cwt. black coal. Brown coal is obtained in Bohemia (Teplitz), 
Styria (Koflach), Upper Austria (Wolfsegg), Carniola (Zagor), 
Moravia, Carinthia, Lower Austria, and Hungary (Losonez 
and Orawitza) ; black coal in Bohemia (Pilsen and Schlan), 
Moravia (Rossitz and Moravian Ostrau), Silesia (Polish 
Ostrau), Galicia (Javorzna, near Cracow), Lower Austria, 
Styria, Upper Austria, and Hungary (Funfkirchen). Peat 
is also common, and is found to a greater or less ex- 
tent in all the provinces. It is, however, found in greatest 
abundance in Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, 
Carniola, Tyrol, Bohemia, and Galicia. 

Austria-Hungary is particularly rich in salt. Immense beds 
of rock salt exist on both sides of the Carpathians, particularly 
at Wieliczka in Western Galicia, where are the far-famed salt- 
works, Solotwina and Delatyn in Eastern Galicia, Marmaros in 


Hungary, and the neighbourhood of Thorda in Transylvania. 
Salt is also largely obtained in the district of Salzkammergut 
in Upper Austria and Styria (at Hallstadt, Ischl, Ebensee and 
Aussee), in Salzburg (Hallein), and in Tyrol (Hall). It is 
also obtained from salt springs in Galicia, Hungary, and Tran- 
sylvania. In addition to this it is manufactured from sea 
water at various places along the coast, at Pirano in Istria, and 
Pagno and Stagno, in Dalmatia. In 1875, 1,494,800 cwt. of 
rock salt were obtained in Austria, 2,797,520 cwt. of salt 
from brine, and 741,580 cwt. of sea salt, besides 211,420 cwt. 
of salt for industrial purposes, making in all 5,245,320 cwt.; 
while Hungary yielded of all sorts 2,210,780 cwt., the total 
being 7,456,100 cwt., and the total value 3,080,000/. Sulphur 
is found in Galicia, Bohemia, Moravia, and Salzburg ; alum, 
in Bohemia, Hungary, Moravia, and Salzburg ; sulphates of 
of iron and copper, in Bohemia and Carniola; petroleum, 
especially in Galicia ; asphalt in Dalmatia and Tyrol ; and 
graphite, in Lower Austria, Carinthia, Bohemia, and Moravia. 
Clay is found in most of the low-lying parts of the country ; 
and at Inzensdorf in Lower Austria is said to be the largest 
brick and tile work in the world. Porcelain clay exists in Bohe- 
mia and Moravia ; white, red, black, and variously coloured 
marble in Tyrol, Salzburg, Silesia, and Galicia ; alabaster in 
Galicia ; and gypsum in Silesia. 

Manufactures. — The manufactures of Austria-Hungary have 
made great progress during the last five-and-twenty years, 
and notwithstanding the check they received a few years ago, 
many of them are now extensively and actively carried on. 
They include cotton, flax, hemp, woollen and silk stuffs \ gold, 
silver, iron, lead, copper, tin, and zinc articles ; leather, paper, 
tobacco, beer, brandy, and sugar ; glass, porcelain, and 
earthenware ; chemical stuffs ; scientific and musical instru- 
ments, &c. The manufactures are principally carried on in 
the W. provinces, and more particularly in Bohemia, Moravia, 
Silesia, and Lower Austria. In the Hungarian provinces, in 
Galicia, Bukowina, and Dalmatia they are comparatively neg- 



lected. The principal seats of the woollen, linen, and cotton 
manufactures are in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, and of the last 
also in Lower Austria and^Vorarlberg; of iron inStyria, Carinthia, 
Bohemia, Hungary and Moravia ; iron and steel wares chiefly 
in Vienna, Waidhofen on the Ybbs in Lower Austria, and the 
town of Steyer in Upper Austria ; leather in Moravia, Lower 
Austria, and Bohemia ; leathern articles in Vienna and 
Prague ; glass, porcelain, and earthenware in Bohemia ; 
beetroot sugar in Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary, Silesia, Galicia ; 
silk in Vienna ; beer in Vienna and Bohemia ; brandy in 
Galicia, Moravia, and Bohemia ; cabinet wares and musical 
instruments in Vienna and Prague ; and scientific and surgi- 
cal instruments in Vienna. The annual value of the manu- 
factures is estimated at 180,000,000/., of which about one 
fourth is produced in Bohemia and Silesia, and after them come 
Styria, and the other Alpine provinces. The manufactures in 
Hungary are extensively carried on only in the larger towns 
and particularly in the capital, Buda-Pesth. According to the 
census of 1869, 2,920,280 persons were employed in the 
manufactures, of whom 2,273,316 were in Austria, and 
646,964 in Hungary. Of these, 890,951 were engaged in 
industries connected with weaving; 677,740 in producing 
articles in metal, stone, and wood ; 298,113 in the building 
arts ; 330,285 in the production of articles of food, chemicals, 
and tobacco ; 478,704 in leather, paper, and other productive 
industries; and 244,487 in non-productive industries. These 
figures, however, by no means represent the total number of 
persons employed in the manufactures. They only include 
those that are directly so employed without taking account of 
the members of their family who may also be engaged therein, 
or of the great numbers that practise some manufacture as 
secondary to husbandry. The number altogether of those 
who are employed in some kind of manufacture is estimated 
at not less than 7,000,000. 

The cotton manufacture is one of the most extensive and 
flourishing in the country, and it has also risen up very rapidly. 


In 1 83 1, the import of cotton was 101,000 cwt., and the export 
175 cwt., ; in 1850, the former had risen to 522,000, and the 
latter to T270; and in 1875, the former was 1,186,552, and 
the latter 37,949 cwt. In 1870, there were in the country 134 
spinning factories, with 1,405,000 spindles, and employing 
20,500 work-people. Of the factories 67 were in Bohemia, 29 
in Lower Austria, and 24 in Tyrol and Vorarlberg. The 
weaving of cotton is still mostly done by hand, and as a 
domestic branch of industry, being frequently carried on as a 
secondary occupation by persons engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits. There are in all about 200,000 hand looms. Power- 
loom weaving has, however, lately been introduced, and in 1875, 
there were about 20,000 of these in operation, 8000 being in 
Bohemia, 4000 in Vorarlberg, and the rest in Lower and Upper 
Austria, Moravia, and Silesia. Weaving is most extensively 
carried on in Northern Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia. The 
annual value of the cotton goods produced in the Monarchy is 
estimated at about 6,000,000/. In connexion with this manu- 
facture there are printing works, of which there are several large 
establishments in Bohemia, Lower Austria, and Vorarlberg. 

The flax and hemp manufacture is one of the oldest in the 
country, and was long the most important ; but in consequence 
of the rapid advance of the cotton manufacture, it is no longer 
of the same importance as formerly. It still, however, affords 
employment to a great number of persons, and is very generally 
extended over the country. It is principally carried on as a 
domestic industry, the yarn being mostly spun by hand, and 
the weaving generally carried on in the cottages as a secondary 
occupation, the linen produced being chiefly of the commoner 
kinds and intended for domestic use. As a domestic industry 
it is most extensively carried on in Upper Hungary, Galicia, 
and Bukowina, but the production though large comes little 
into the market. There are also, however, a number of spin- 
ning factories, chiefly in Bohemia, Silesia, Moravia, and Lower 
and Upper Austria. In 1870, the number of spindles was 
403,000, of which 260,400 were in Bohemia, 71,600 in Silesia, 

G 2 


and 57,ooo in Moravia. For the weaving of fine linen the most 
noted places are Rumburg, Schonhaide, and Reichenberg, in 
Bohemia ; Schonberg, in Moravia ; and Freudenthal, in Silesia. 
The number of looms for weaving linen in the Monarchy is 

The woollen manufacture is also an old-established branch of 
industry, and is still actively carried on. It is estimated that 
about 600,000 cwt. of wool are spun annually, the principal 
seats of it being in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Upper 
Austria, where it has been brought to a high state of perfection. 
The number of spindles in 1870 was 580,000. The weaving 
of woollen stuffs of a middling or inferior quality which are 
largely exported to America, Northern Europe, Italy, and the 
East, is extensively carried on in Moravia (especially at Briinn), 
Silesia (Bielitz), and Bohemia (Reichenberg). Fine cloths are 
manufactured at Namiest, Briinn, and Iglau in Moravia, and 
Klagenfurt in Carinthia. Shawls are manufactured only in 
Vienna ; carpets there, and in Linz and Reichenberg. About 
half the entire quantity of woollen goods produced in the coun- 
try are manufactured in Bohemia and Moravia. The prosper- 
ous state of the woollen manufacture is owing to its being 
mostly in the hands of large manufacturers who employ the 
most improved kinds of machinery. In E. Hungary, Galicia, 
and Bukowina, as well as in Tyrol, Carniola, and Styria, the 
manufacture of coarse woollens is carried on to a considerable 
extent, but chiefly in the cottages and for home use. Little of 
this comes into the market. 

If we except a few establishments in Bohemia and Moravia, 
the manufacture of silk stuffs is confined to Lower Austria, 
and principally to Vienna. In 1870, there were 165 silk and 
velvet factories, aud 119 ribbon factories in Vienna and the 
neighbourhood. Silk is produced in any considerable quantity 
only in Southern Tyrol, but to some extent also in the Maritime 
District and the S. of Hungary. The amount produced, how- 
ever, is not equal to what is required, and about 1,700,000 lbs. 
are annually brought from other countries. The spinning of 


silk is principally carried on in Southern Tyrol. The annual 
value of the silk stuffs manufactured is about 900,000/. 

The iron and steel manufactures form one of the most im- 
portant branches of industry in the Monarchy, and afford em- 
ployment to a great number of persons. They are more or less 
extensively carried on in all the provinces except the southern 
ones of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, and the Maritime District ; 
but their principal seats are in Lower and Upper Austria, 
Bohemia, Moravia, Styria, and Carinthia. One of the most 
important of these seats is Steyer, and its neighbourhood in 
Upper Austria, where there are about 700 establishments pro- 
ducing goods to the value of 400,000/. annually, chiefly cutlery, 
scythes, sickles, arms, &c. There are also numerous ironworks 
in Vienna, and Waidhofen on the Ybbs, in Lower Austria. 
Bessimer steel is now largely manufactured in Styria, Lower 
Austria, and Carinthia. The principal casting works are in 
Bohemia, Moravia, and Lower Austria. The making of steam- 
engines and other kinds of machinery has made great progress 
of late years, its chief seats being Vienna, Wiener-Neustadt, 
Prague, Briinn, Buda-Pesth, and Trieste. The Austrian 
Lloyd's Company has large workshops at Trieste. Agricultural 
implements and machinery are largely made in Vienna, Wiener- 
Neustadt, Prague, and Briinn. Vienna is particularly noted for 
its manufacture of fire-proof safes, also for its lamps, and of late 
years it has done a large business in the making of sewing- 
machines. Among the other iron and steel manufactures may 
be mentioned tools of various kinds, files, wire, nails, jews' harps 
(which find a ready market in the East and in other parts), steel 
pens, needles, &c. Still English and American goods meet with 
a good sale in the Monarchy. 

The principal copper works are at Brixlegg and other places 
in Tyrol, in Galicia, Bukowina, and Hungary. The annual value 
of the articles produced is about 293,000/. Leaden wares are 
manufactured to the annual value of about 155,000/., and zinc 
and tin goods to about 45,300/. These manufactures are 
mostly in the hands of small manufacturers. Gold and silver 


articles are worked chiefly in Vienna, and to some extent also in 
Prague, — the annual value being about 1,141,600/. The mixed 
metals are also made and manufactured to a considerable ex- 
tent, as brass, bronze, bell-metal, gun-metal, pinchbeck, &c 
Vienna is particularly noted for its production of beautiful 
articles in bronze — ornaments, lustres, candelabra, church fur- 
nishings, and utensils of various kinds. 

The manufacture of scientific instruments — mathematical, 
physical, surgical, optical, has of late years risen rapidly into 
importance, particularly in Vienna and Prague, and now these 
are to be found among the exports to other countries. Austria 
is also distinguished for the manufacture of musical instruments, 
both wind and stringed, particularly the former, the chief seats 
being Vienna, Prague, and Koniggratz. Pianofortes are 
largely made in Vienna, and form a considerable article of ex- 
port. Clock or watchmaking is not extensively carried on, 
and is declining. 

The glass manufacture has its principal seat in Bohemia, 
where there are not only the greatest number of works, but 
where the articles produced are of very superior quality. The 
crystal glass of Bohemia surpasses both English and Belgian 
for hardness and polish, and the articles are noted for the 
beauty of their forms and the skill of their workmanship. 
Artificial pearls and precious stones in glass are largely manu- 
factured in the neighbourhood of Gablonz, and looking-glasses 
in W. Bohemia. Besides Bohemia there are glassworks in 
Moravia, Styria, Lower Austria, and Hungary, but they produce 
chiefly the commoner kinds of glass for home use. The annual 
value of the glass produced in the glassworks of Austria is esti- 
mated at 2,530,000/., besides which there are about 30 glass- 
works in Hungary. 

The manufacture of leather constitutes an important branch 
of industry, and is chiefly carried on in Lower Austria, 
Bohemia, and Moravia. There are in all about 8000 establish- 
ments great and small in the Monarchy, yet the amount pro- 
duced falls considerably short of the demand. Boots and shoes 


are made to a considerable extent in all the large towns, but 
principally in Vienna, Prague, and Miinchengratz in Bohemia ; 
and they form a considerable article of export. Gloves are 
also largely manufactured in Vienna and Prague, and find a 
ready market abroad, being considered little inferior to those of 
France. Vienna is also noted for its manufacture of fancy 
articles in leather, and trunks. Saddlery is principally carried 
on in Vienna, Prague and Buda-Pesth. 

Paper-making has of late made considerable progress in 
Austria. The most important works are in Lower Austria, 
Bohemia, Styria, and Fiume. Vienna is noted for its varie- 
gated and wall papers, also for its pasteboard and cardboard. 
The manufacture of papier-mache goods employs many persons 
in the districts of Gablonz and Teplitz, in Bohemia. 

The manufacture of sugar from beet-root is actively carried 
on, and is year by year increasing in importance. In 1876, 
there were 231 factories in operation in the Monarchy, of which 
150 were in Bohemia, 48 in Moravia, 18 in Hungary, and 8 in 
Silesia. They consumed in all over 30,000,000 cwt. of beet-root 
and produced about 1,072,000 cwt. of sugar. This not only 
supplies the home demand, but furnishes a considerable surplus 
for exportation. The manufacture as well as the growth of 
tobacco is a government monopoly. There are 27 tobacco fac- 
tories in Austria, and 10 in Hungary, employing in all 39,380 per- 
sons, and producing annually 1,756,000,000 cigars, 98,000,000 
cigarettes, 78,288,000 lbs. of common tobacco, 4,920,000 lbs. of 
roll tobacco, and 5,535,000 lbs. of snuff. The largest factories 
are those of Hainburg in Lower Austria, Furstenfeld in Styria, 
and Sedler in Bohemia. 

Austria is noted for its beer, of which that of Vienna and 
Bohemia are particularly celebrated. In 1876 there were no 
fewer than 2504 beer breweries in operation in the Monarchy, 
of which 2272 were in Austria, and 232 in Hungary. Of the 
former there were 928 in Bohemia, 271 in Upper Austria, 230 
in Galicia, 228 in Moravia, 142 in Tyrol, 128 in Carinthia, and 
no in Lower Austria. The quantity of beer annually pro- 


duced exceeds 248,500,000 gallons. Fifteen of the breweries 
each produced over 2,200,000 gallons — ten being in the neigh- 
bourhood of Vienna, and 4 of these producing each from 
4,500,000 to 8,500,000 gallons annually. Beer forms an im- 
portant article of export, particularly bottled beer made in the 
breweries around Vienna. Brandy is largely made in the 
N.E. and E. districts, in Hungary, Galicia, and Bukowina, and 
to a less extent in Bohemia, Moravia, and Lower Austria. 
Liqueurs of superior quality are made in Dalmatia (Mara- 
schino), Moravia, Bohemia, and Lower Austria. 

The manufacture of porcelain articles is actively carried on 
in the N.W. of Bohemia, where there exist rich beds of por- 
celain clay. The number of porcelain works in the Monarchy 
is 36— of which 25 are in Bohemia, 10 in Hungary, and 1 at 
Linz in Upper Austria. The articles produced meet the home 
demand and also afford a considerable surplus for exportation. 
Earthenware goods are made mostly in Moravia, but also in 
Bohemia, Galicia, and Lower Austria. Terra Cotta wares 
: — which have lately come much into use for the ornamenting 
of buildings, &c. — are made in the neighbourhood of Vienna. 
The porcelain works in 1870 employed 3850 men, and pro- 
duced 168,000/. worth of goods ; while the earthenware and 
other works employed 2830 men, and yielded 138,000/. The 
making of bricks and tiles is actively carried on, there being 
in Austria 80 large works, and over 4000 lesser ones, employ- 
ing 22,000 workmen, and producing annually to the value 
of 1,500,000/. In Hungary there are 184 larger and many 
smaller brickworks. 

The manufacture of chemicals has of late years been greatly 
extended, and now forms an important branch of industry — 
not a few of the products being to be found among the exports 
of the country. Sulphuric and muriatic acids are largely made 
in Bohemia, Lower Austria, and Silesia ; pharmaceutical pre- 
parations and perfumes are made chiefly in Vienna ; and dye- 
stuffs in Lower Austria and Bohemia. Tartar and potash 
are produced chiefly in Hungary ; petroleum is obtained in 


Galicia, where is also obtained ozokerit or earth-wax, now 
largely employed in the manufacture of candles. The manu- 
facture of candles and soap is largely carried on in Vienna and 
some other parts. The value or the soap, oil, perfumes, &c , 
produced in Austria in 1870, was estimated at 1,398,200/. ; of 
chemical products 220,200/.; petroleum, 126,700/.; colours 
and dyes, 117,200/. 

The manufacture of wooden articles is extensively carried on 
over the country, and affords employment to a great number of 
persons. Articles of furniture are largely made in Vienna, and 
Buda-Pesth, particularly of bent wood, which owing to their 
cheapness and durability are in demand both at home and 
abroad. Artistic cabinet work is also largely done in these 
towns, and of late has been greatly improved through the 
influence of the art schools and museums. The making of 
wooden toys is chiefly a domestic industry carried on by the 
peasantry in the mountainous and rural districts — particularly 
in the Bohemian Erzgebirge, the Salzkammergut district, and 
the Grodnerthal in Tyrol. It has lately been much improved 
through the establishment of special schools. Shipbuilding is 
carried on particularly at Trieste, Tola, and Fiume. Railway 
and other carriages are largely made at Vienna, Prague, and 
some other places. Vienna is also noted for its manufacture 
of meerschaum and amber articles. 

The total number of mills for the grinding of corn, in the 
Monarchy in 1874, was 56,504, of which 31,548 were in Austria, 
and 24,956 in Hungary; 47,829 were water-mills; 1469 wind- 
mills; 707 steam mills; 128 steam and water mills; and 6361 
mills worked by animal power. In that year there were in 
Austria 12,268 baking establishments, employing 10,910 work- 
men, and producing to the value of 3,652,000/, ; 1165 confec- 
tionary establishments, employing 2780 workmen, and yielding 
260,000/. ; and 76 chocolate factories employing 820 men, and 
yielding 210,000/. There are over 500 printing and lithographic 
establishments in the country, of which 44 of the former, and 
78 of the latter, are in Vienna alone. 


A rough estimate of the annual value of the industrial pro- 
ducts [of the Monarchy, published in 1872, gives the total 
amount as not less than 130,000,000/., of which 33 per cent, 
belonged to the E., and 67 to the W. half of the country. 
Taking the provinces, no less than 18 per cent, belonged to 
Bohemia alone, 15 to Lower Austria (including Vienna), 15 to 
Hungary, 6 to Transylvania and the other Hungarian provinces, 
11 to Galicia and Bukowina, 10 to Moravia, 6 to Tyrol, 4 to 
Styria, and 4 to Upper Austria. Since the time when this 
estimate was made, the value of the industrial products of the 
Monarchy must have largely increased. 




The great means of communication are roads and railways, 
navigable rivers and canals, and seaports with shipping. 
Except as regards her navigable rivers, Austria-Hungary has 
not been greatly favoured by nature in this respect. The 
mountainous character of much of the country presents 
obstacles to easy communication between its different parts, 
while the small extent of its seaboard does not afford great 
facilities to commercial intercourse with other countries. 
Much, however, has been done — particularly of late years — 
in the way of making and improving roads, opening up 
mountain passes, and especially in constructing railways 
throughout the country, and in establishing lines of steamers. 

The roads are generally in good condition \ and at the end 
of 1874 there were 33,250 miles of state, provincial, and 
district roads in Austria, and at the end of 187 1, 19,200 
miles of state and county roads in Hungary, making 
together 52,450 miles. They are more numerous and in 
better condition in the W. than in the E. portion of the 
Monarchy. Bohemia in particular is distinguished for the 
number and excellence of its roads. 

In 1837 the Monarchy possessed only 160 miles of rail- 
way; in 1849 it had 1214 miles; in 1857, 2260 miles; and 
in 1867, 4 X 7 nriles. Within the next eight years this last 
sum was more than doubled, for at the end of 1875 there 
were no less than 10,345 miles of railway in operation. Of 
these 4754 miles were in Austria, 2441 in Hungary, and 


3150 common to both. Of this last there were 1650 miles 
in Austria, and 1500 in Hungary. In the course of the year ■ 
1876 there were 580 miles of new railway opened in Austria, 
and 295 in Hungary, making in all 11,220 miles in operation 
at the end of that year — besides 414 miles in course of con- 
struction, and 408 miles conceded. During 1875, 41,348,200 
passengers were carried by rail, and 1,221,000,000 cwt. of 
goods. Of the former, 532,900 were first class; 5,449,100 
second class; 26,086,600 third class; 8,253,700 fourth class; 
and 1,025,900 military. The receipts from passenger traffic 
amounted to 4,346,000/.; from goods, to 13,455,200/.; and 
from sundries, to 514,600/. — making a total of 18,315,800/. 
The total working expenses were 10,850,500/, leaving a 
balance of 7,465,300/., of which 3,666,600/. was on the 
Austrian lines, 605,300/. on the Hungarian lines, and 
3,193,400/. on the common lines. This surplus had to meet 
the interest on capital and other charges. The capital of the 
Austrian lines amounted in all to 119,223,100/., of the Hun- 
garian lines to 43,943,400/., and of the common lines to 
104,775,600/. — making a gross total of 267,942,100/. The 
surplus would thus yield 3.08 per cent, on the capital of the 
Austrian lines, 3.04 per cent, on the common, and 1.3 1 on the 
Hungarian, or 2.80 per cent, on the whole. Individual lines, 
however, differ considerably from these averages — some being 
much higher, others considerably lower. 

The River Danube, which traverses the country from W. to 
S.E., is navigable for steamers for its entire length within the 
territory, from Passau to Orsova. Many of its affluents are 
also navigable for a considerable length, particularly the Theiss, 
Drave, and Save. It affords means of communication, not only 
between the different parts of the country, but also with 
Germany, Turkey, Servia, Roumania and Russia ; and notwith- 
standing the railway competition the traffic is yearly increasing. 
In 1865, it amounted to 60,000,000 cwt, in 1870 to 90,000,000 
cwt, and in 1875 to 120,000,000 cwt. Nearly one half of this 
is timber brought down in rafts, about one fourth is grain, 


and the rest coal, charcoal, salt, stone, lime, flour, wine, wool, 
skins, &c. Nearly one-fourth of the entire traffic is carried 
on by the Austrian Steam-Ship Company, which in 1876 
possessed 196 steamers and 696 towed boats, and carried 
26,921,000 cwt. of goods, besides 2,554,700 passengers. The 
Elbe, so far as it is navigable serves principally for the export 
of Austrian raw and manufactured articles to Saxony and 
Prussia, and also to some extent to Hamburg. These consist 
chiefly of brown coal, timber, and corn, and amount in all to 
about 10,000,000 cwt. annually. The Vistula enables western 
Galicia to communicate with the Baltic, and the principal 
traffic consists in sending down timber, corn, salt, and other 
products, to the amount of about 4,500,000 cwt. annually. 
There are steamers and other vessels on a number of the 
larger lakes, but the traffic is not considerable. The navigable 
canals in Austria are not numerous. The principal are the 
Wiener-Neustadter Canal, which connects Vienna with the 
Leitha ; the Bacser or Francis Canal, between the Theiss and 
Danube; and the Bega Canal, between the Bega and the 
Temes. The Monarchy possesses in all about 4240 miles of 
navigable river and canal communication, of which the greater 
part (60 per cent.) is in Hungary. 

The Monarchy includes in all 112 seaports at which trade 
is carried on, of which 44 are in the Maritime District, 57 in 
Dalmatia, and 11 in Croatia. The principal of these are 
Trieste, Fiume, Pola, Spalato, Rovigno, and Zara. At the end 
of 1876 the number of vessels belonging to these ports was 7538, 
having in all 330,300 tons, and 27,650 men. Of these 98 
were steamers with 56,900 tons ; 573 with 282,100 tons were 
large vessels sailing to distant parts; 73 with 6 7 00 tons were large 
coasting vessels; and 1885 with 27,800 tons were small coast- 
ing vessels ; the rest being fishing and other barks and lighters. 
Formerly the trade of Austria-Hungary was very much hampered 
by high duties and restrictions of various kinds, but of late these 
have all been removed or very much modified, and the trade in 
consequence, has greatly increased. The whole country has, 


with certain exceptions, been formed into one customs territory, 
within which trade is perfectly free and the goods are subject 
to no duties. The duties on imports into this territory are 
in general moderate, and have in view chiefly the protection of 
native industries. There are no duties levied on exports — ex- 
cept on a very few articles, as raw skins and hides, bones, rags 
and other substances used in the manufacture of paper. 
There are no duties levied on goods in transit. The parts not 
included within this customs territory are Dalmatia (which 
forms a customs district by itself), Istria and the islands in 
the gulf of Quarnero, the six free ports of Trieste, Fiume, 
Buccari, Zengg, Portore and Carlopago, the town of Brody in 
Galicia, and the small village of Jungholz in Tyrol. 1 

According to the census of 1869, there were 567,225 
persons engaged in trade, of whom 400,644 were in Austria, 
and 133,582 in Hungary. The internal trade of the country 
consists chiefly of the exchange of the products of one part of 
the country with another — more particularly of the agricultural 
products of the E. with the industrial products of the W. 
Important markets are held at fixed times in the principal 
towns, for the different kinds of produce. Vienna, as being the 
capital and the seat of so many different branches of industry, 
and having also ready means of communication with all parts 
of the country, is the principal seat both of the home and 
foreign trade, and the great resort of merchants and 

The external trade of the country is principally carried on 
overland. Of the imports, in 1876, 82.8 per cent, in value 
were brought overland, and 17.2 per cent, by sea; and of the 
exports, 84.8 per cent, were sent landwards, and 15.2 by sea. 
The following are the principal countries with which 
trade was carried on, and the, percentage falling to each. 
Imports: — Saxony, 30. 1; South Germany, 19.7 ; Prussia, 14. 1; 

1 Since the above was written the imperial assent has been given to a 
bill by which Istria, Dalmatia, and Brody, together with Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, are to be included within the Austro-Hungarian Customs limit. 


Trieste, 13.7; Roumania, 6.2; Turkey, 5.1; Italy, 4.1; Sea- 
ports, 3.5; Russia, 2.9; Switzerland, 0.6. Exports: — South 
Germany, 25.6; Saxony, 23.9; Trieste, 12.9; Prussia, 15.6; 
Italy, 7.0 ; Russia, 5.2 ; Roumania, 4.9 ; Seaports, 2.2 ; Turkey, 
2.1 ; Switzerland, 0.6. The total value of the imports was 
54,805,000/. ; and of the exports 60,338,800/. The principal 
imports with their values in round numbers were cotton (from 
North America, the East Indies, Turkey), 3,380,000/. ; grain 
(Roumania, Russia, Italy), 2,550,000/. ; silk goods (France, 
Switzerland, Prussia, Italy), 1,480,000/. ; cattle for slaughter 
and draught (oxen from Russia and Roumania, swine from 
Servia), 4,220,000/.; coffee (Brazil, Java), 3,590,000/.; wool 
(Australia and Cape, England, and the Zollverein), 2,740,000/. ; 
woollen goods (England and Germany), 2,200,000/.; skins 
and hides (America, Russia, Turkey), 1,660,000/. ; leather 
(Germany), 1,810,000/. ; ironwares (England, Belgium, Ger- 
many), 580,000/.; woollen yarn (France, Belgium, England), 
990,000/. ; cotton yarn (England, Switzerland, Germany), 
1,820,000/. The exports, in like manner, were small wares 
(to the Levant, Germany, England, the United States, Italy), 
3,470,000/. ; grain (Switzerland, France, Belgium), 6,890,000/. 
wool (France and Germany), 2,670,000/.; flour (the Levant, 
Germany, Switzerland, Holland, Brazil), 2,480,000/.; wood 
(Germany, France, Italy), 3,640,000/. ; glass, 1,540,000/. ; 
woollen goods (the Levant, North America), 2,130,000/.; linen 
goods (Germany, the Levant), 1,390,000/.; cattle for slaughter 
and draught (oxen, England and Germany ; swine, Germany ; 
sheep, France), 3,740,000/. The total value of the imports into 
the United Kingdom from Austrian territories in 1877 was 
1,540,980/. ; and of the exports, 1,397,322/. The chief articles 
of import were wheat and flour (1,335,921 cwt), and of export 
cotton manufactures and iron. 

The number of trading vessels that entered the various 
seaports with cargoes in 187 1 was 25,999 having in all 
2,684,900 tons, and in ballast 14,621 vessels, with 892,000 
tons. In like manner in 1875, 30,604 vessels having 3,384,800 


tons entered laden and 16,169 vessels with 1,041,200 tons in 
ballast. In 187 1 the number of trading vessels that left the 
different ports with cargoes was 25,790, numbering in all 
2,5 1 2,700 tons, and in ballast 14,368, with 1,159,500 tons. In 
1875, the numbers that left laden were, 28,905 vessels, tonnage 
3,126,100, in ballast 17,593 vessels, tonnage 1,301,600. Of 
those in 1875, 10,377 vessels having 1,314,000 tons entered 
from foreign countries, and 9658 vessels having 1,327,300 tons 
left for foreign countries. Taking the tonnage of these, 29 per 
cent, of the foreign trade was with Italy, 25.6 with Turkey, 
12.6 Great Britain, 11.9 Greece, 8.4 France, 5.6 Egypt, and 
6.9 other countries. 

The principal seaport of the country is Trieste, at which 
nearly one-third of the whole sea trade of the Monarchy is 
carried on. In 1875 8,152 trading vessels, having in all 
1,003,900 tons entered this port. The principal of the other 
ports with the amount of tonnage that entered them in 1875 
were Pola 372,600, Lussin-piccolo 224,800, Zara 198,300, 
Spalato 197,800, Gravosa 183,700, Pirano 172,300, Fiume 
167,300, Rovigno 155,300, Parenzo 154,600, Sebenico, 

The total value of the imports at the different ports in 1875 
was 18,700,000/., and of the exports 13,700,000/. The prin- 
cipal articles of import were coffee 321,000 cwt, leaf tobacco 
i42,-ooo cwt., manufactured tobacco 21,000 cwt, wheat 
3,620,000 bushels, flour 738,000 cwt, olive oil 471,000 cwt, 
pitch, turpentine, and rock oil 338,000 cwt., raw cotton 712,000 
cwt., cotton goods 84,000 cwt. The chief articles of export were 
refined sugar 224,000 cwt, manufactured tobacco 19,000 cwt, 
maize 2,606,000 bushels, flour 1,505,000 cwt, olive oil 335,000 
cwt., staves 68,079,000, raw cotton 133,000 cwt, cotton goods 
114,000 cwt. 

In addition to these there is a considerable transit trade 
through the country, chiefly from the seaports and the eastern 
borders towards the N. and N.W. It is estimated at about 
25,000,000/. annually. 


In 1868 there were 20 banks in Austria, of which 10 were 
in Vienna, and 10 in the provinces, and which had altogether a 
capital of 18,216,600/. Then followed a period of over-specu- 
lation, so that in May, 1873 the number of banks had risen 
to 137, of which 69 were in Vienna, and the share capital had 
increased to 61,889,000/. The monetary crisis followed, and in 
the end of 1873 the number of banks had fallen to 92, and 
the share capital to 48,063,600/. In 1874, -75, and -76 the 
numbers were still farther reduced, so that at the end of the 
last-named year there were only 5 1 banks with a share capital 
of 26,948,600/., of which 18 banks having a capital of 
22,850,000/. were in Vienna. In Hungary in like manner, the 
number of banks in 1867 was only 5. From that time to 1873, 
126 new banks were founded, and of these in 1874 and 1875 
31 were in liquidation. At the end of 1875 tne number of 
banks in Hungary was 97. with a total share capital of 
5,690,000/. The principal Austrian Banks are the National 
Bank, founded in 181 6, and having a capital of 9,000,000/.; 
Trade and Manufactures Credit Institute, founded 1855, 
capital 4,000,000/.; Anglo- Austrian Bank, founded 1863, capi- 
tal 2,400,000/. ; Franco- Austrian Bank, founded 1869, capital 
1,000,000/. ; Vienna Banking Union, founded 1869, capital 
1,200,000/. ; Union Bank, founded 1870, capital 2,170,000/. ; 
Austrian Banking Company, founded 1873, capital 1,000,000/. 
The principal Hungarian Banks are, the Pesth Hungarian 
Commercial Bank, founded 1842, capital 250,000/.; General 
Hungarian Credit Bank, founded 1867, capital 1,200,000/.; 
Anglo-Hungarian Bank, founded 1868, capital 384,300/.; 
Franco-Hungarian Bank, founded 1869, capital 1,000,000/.; 
Hungarian General Municipal Credit Institute, founded 1872, 
capital 400,000/. 

The country also contains a number of savings-banks. The 
first institution of this kind was founded at Vienna in 18 19, 
and in 1850 there were 19 in Austria. In i860 there were 
60 having deposits to the amount of 10,500,000/. ; in 1870 192, 
with 28,570,000/. of deposits; and in 1875 289, with 58,930,000/, 



of deposits. The number of depositors was 1,340,700, being 
one in every 15 of the population, and each depositor had on 
an average 44/. In Hungary in 1875, there were 328 savings 
banks, having in all 18,346,500/. In addition to these there 
are a number of provident institutions for receiving small 
sums on deposit, and making advances, in cases of necessity, 
of small sums at a moderate rate of interest, repayable by 
instalments. There are also numerous societies established 
for the furthering in various ways of industry and commerce. 

The number of joint-stock companies in Austria, at the end 
of 1875 was 557? having altogether a paid-up share capital of 
161,600,000/. The Banks and Credit Institutes are included 
here, which if we deduct will leave 497 joint-stock companies 
of various kinds, with a paid-up capital of 129,500,000/. Of 
these the railway companies rank first, and among the rest are 
numerous industrial, mining, and other companies. There are 
no statistics of a similar kind for Hungary. 

In 1850, 32,300,000 private letters passed through the post 
office; in i860, 79,300,000; in 1871, 162,982,677; and in 
1876, 300,749,000 (including post cards). Of these last, 
230,293,000 were in Austria, and 70,456,000 in Hungary. 
Besides the letters there were 88,630,000 newspapers carried, 
and 34,936,000 samples, &c. These gave on an average 
10.9 letters and 2.9 newspapers to each inhabitant in Austria, 
and 4.5 letters and 2.0 newspapers to each inhabitant in Hun- 
gary during the year 1876. There were in all 6074 post 
offices in the Monarchy. Telegraph lines were first laid in 
the country in 1847, and in 1850 there were 1880 miles of 
them with 37 stations; and 14,400 despatches were forwarded 
during the year. In i860 there were 516 stations, with 7964 
miles of wires, and 727,300 despatches were forwarded. In 
1876 the number of stations had increased to 3240, of which 
2329 were in Austria, and 911 in Hungary; the lines over 
which the wires extended measured 22,220 miles; and the 
number of despatches transmitted was 7,531,900. The prin- 
cipal places from which despatches were sent were Vienna 


3,180,000, Buda-Pesth 2,540,000, Prague 1,080,000, Trieste 
782,000, Cracow 680,000, and Lemberg 576,000. 

There are Exchanges at Vienna, Trieste, Prague, and Buda- 
Pesth — that of Vienna generally regulating the rates that prevail 
in the others, and being itself mainly regulated by the state of 
the foreign exchanges, particularly those of Frankfort, Paris, 
and London. 

Chambers of trade and manufacture are established in all the 
principal towns, each having as its district a province or part 
of a province. They were first established in 1850, and in 1868 
the acts were passed under which they are now regulated. 
There are 29 of these chambers in Austria, and 14 in Hungary. 
The members are elected by the chambers, each for five years. 
Besides these ordinary members there are corresponding mem- 
bers. It is the duty of the chambers to take account of all that 
concerns trade or manufacture, and to bring their observations 
and opinions before the proper authorities. They also act as 
judges in disputes connected with trade or industry, and they 
keep registers of various kinds and draw up periodical reports 
on the actual condition of the people within their districts. 

H 2 



government; army and navy; finance. 

The head of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy is the emperor 
and king in whom the executive power is vested. He bears the 
three titles of Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, &c, and 
Apostolic King of Hungary. The basis of the present consti- 
tution is the Pragmatic Sanction of Charles VI., of date 6th 
December, 1724. It declares the different parts and provinces 
of the Monarchy to be inseparable and indivisible, and fixes 
the succession to the throne in the male line of the House of 
Hapsburg-Lothringen or Hapsburg-Lorraine, in the order of 
primogeniture, or failing males then in the female line. 

The monarch comes of age on the completion of his eighteenth 
year, and must belong to the Roman Catholic faith. On as- 
suming the reins of government he must take an oath to the 
constitution (in Austria, in presence of both Houses of the 
Reichsrath, and in Hungary on his coronation). He is in ex- 
clusive possession of the executive power, but shares the legis- 
lative power with the representative bodies of the two states. 
He is Commander-in-Chief of the army, and Grand Master of the 
seven Orders of Knighthood, which are conferred by him. These 
are the Order of the Golden Fleece (for sovereigns, and per- 
sons of the highest rank), the Military Order of Maria Theresa 
(3 classes), the Royal Hungarian Order of St. Stephen 
(3 classes), the Order of Leopold (3 classes), the Order of the 
Iron Crown (3 classes), the Order of Francis Joseph (3 classes), 
and the Military Order of the Cross of Elizabeth Theresa. 

The form of government in Austria down to 1848 was an 


absolute monarchy, the provincial diets having no voice in the 
management of affairs ; while in Hungary the monarchical 
power was limited by the National Diet. The disturbances of 
1848-49 led to the abolition of the old form of government 
in Austria, and a constitution with popular representation 
was introduced, which, however, did not long continue, and 
absolutism was again established. The disastrous war with 
Italy in 1859, led to the adoption in the following year of a 
constitutional form of government, the power being vested 
chiefly in the provincial diets in Austria, and in the National 
Diet in Hungary. Difficulties being found in the way of 
carrying out this system, a central Reichsrath was established, 
composed of a House of Lords, and a House of Deputies, repre- 
senting all the provinces of the empire. This scheme did not 
meet with the approval of the Hungarians, who claimed the 
right to have a constitution of their own, and a system of 
government independent of Austria. They therefore declined 
to send representatives to the Reichsrath, and this continued 
for some years, till at length in 1867 the laws were passed 
(during the Ministry of Baron Beust), which regulate the 
present constitution. The claims of Hungary to a form of 
government and to certain rights independent of Austria were 
recognized ; and the monarchy declared to consist of two states, 
each having its own constitution and laws, but united under one 
ruler, and for certain common purposes. Thus they act to- 
gether in all matters affecting their interests with foreign coun- 
tries, in what concerns the army and navy, and other things in 
which they have a common interest, particularly as affecting 
industry or commerce, — as commercial treaties with foreign 
countries, the levying of duties on commodities, the arrange- 
ment of railways, the coinage, &c. 

These are under the direction of a controlling body called 
the Delegations consisting of 60 members for each state chosen 
annually by the assemblies, one-third being elected by the 
House of Lords and the House of Magnates, and two-thirds 
by the House of Deputies, and of Representatives. They sit 


alternately at Vienna and Buda-Pesth, and elect their own 
presidents. They conduct their business in distinct chambers, 
communicating their decisions to each other in writing. 
Should three written messages on any subject be exchanged 
without bringing the two bodies into accord, they meet together, 
and without discussion proceed at once to vote by ballot, 
the majority of votes deciding the question. Their resolutions 
require neither the approval nor the confirmation of the 
representative assemblies by which they are chosen, but only 
imperial assent. The executive is vested in three departments : 
(i) a ministry of the imperial house and of foreign affairs ; (2) 
a ministry of war; and (3) a ministry of finance. These are 
responsible to the Delegations. 

The Reichsrath, imperial council, or parliament of Austria 
consists of a House of Lords and a House of Deputies. The 
former is composed of (1) princes of the imperial house who 
are of age (at present 13); (2) hereditary members, heads of 
noble houses of high rank (54) ; (3) archbishops (10) ; bishops 
with the rank of princes (7) ; and (4) life members nominated 
by the emperor on account of distinguished services (105). The 
House of Deputies is composed of 353 members elected to 
represent different classes of the inhabitants of the several 
provinces. Of these 85 are chosen by the large landed pro- 
prietors; 21 by the chambers of trade and manufacture; 116 by 
electors in the cities, towns, and places of industry, directly ; 
and 131 by electors in country districts, not directly but 
through representatives chosen for that purpose every six 
years. The number of deputies for the different provinces 
are, Lower Austria 37, Upper Austria 17, Salzburg 5, Styria 
23, Carinthia 9, Carniola 10, Trieste (city and district) 4, 
Gorz-Gradisca 4, Istria 4, Tyrol 18, Vorarlberg 3, Bohemia 
92, Moravia 36, Silesia 10, Galicia 63, Bukowina 9, and Dal- 
matia 9. The elections are for six years, and the emperor nomi- 
nates the presidents and vice-presidents of both houses. 

The Reichsrath has the right of legislation in all matters 
affecting the rights, duties, or interests of the several provinces 


in so far as these, from equally affecting Hungary, do not 
come within the province of the delegations. It deals with 
matters connected with industry, commerce, and finance, the 
the post office, railways, telegraphs, customs, the mint, raising 
of new loans, imposing of new taxes, the budgets, matters re- 
lating to military service and defence, &c. The members of 
either house have the right to propose new laws on matters 
within their province ; but the consent of both houses as well 
as the sanction of the emperor is required to render them 
valid. The excutive is vested in the president of council and 
ministries for the interior, religion and education, commerce, 
agriculture, national defence, justice, and finance. The minis- 
ters form also a ministerial council, which is presided over by 
the emperor or a minister president. The ministers are re- 
sponsible to the Reichsrath. 

Each province or electoral district, has its provincial diet, 
which deals with such matters affecting it as do not come 
before the Reichsrath, such as local taxation, religion, educa- 
tion, public works, charitable institutions, industry, trade, &c. 
There are 17 of such diets in the country, and the number of 
members in each, varies according to the size and importance 
of the district, from 20 or 30, up to 100 for Moravia, 151 for 
Galicia, and 241 for Bohemia. Each diet is composed of the 
archbishops and bishops of the Roman Catholic and Greek 
Catholic churches, the rectors of the universities, representa- 
tives chosen by the great landed proprietors, representatives 
of the chambers of trade and manufacture, and representatives 
of the rural districts. In all these cases except the last, 
the members are chosen directly by the electors. In the last 
case, the electors choose a certain number of persons to re- 
represent them, and by them the election is made. The 
members are elected for six years, and sit under a president, 
who together with his deputy, is nominated by the emperor 
for the same period of six years. 

The Hungarian Reichstag, national diet, or parliament con- 
sists of an Upper and Lower House, the former known as the 


House of Magnates, the latter as the House of Representatives. 
The Upper House is composed of 3 royal archdukes, having 
estates in the kingdom ; 48 Roman and Greek Catholic 
archbishops, bishops, and archabbots; 10 royal barons; 71 
supreme counts; the Governor of Fiume ; 18 princes; 380 
counts; 208 barons ; n deputies from the Croatia-Slavonian 
diet, and 6 regalists of Transylvania. The Lower House is com- 
posed of 445 members of whom ZZ represent the towns, 289 
the counties and districts, 34 the sees, and 34 Croatia and 
Slavonia. They are chosen directly by the electors, for a term 
of three years, and are summoned annually by the king to meet 
in Buda-Pesth. The president and vice-president of the House 
of Magnates are nominated by the king from among the mem- 
beis, and the president and two vice-presidents of the House 
of Representatives, are chosen by themselves. The executive 
is vested in a president of council and ministries for the interior, 
religion and education, agriculture, industry and commerce, 
public works and communications, national defence, justice, 
finance, Croatia and Slavonia, all in Buda-Pesth, and a ministry 
for the Court, at Vienna. 

Croatia and Slavonia also have a diet for the management ot 
their affairs, consisting of 134 members, of whom 9 are arch- 
bishops and bishops, 8 supreme counts, 40 magnates, 26 repre- 
sentatives of towns, and 5 1 representatives of country districts. 

Army. — Since the war with Prussia in 1866, Austria- Hungary 
has been making every effort to raise the strength and efficiency 
of her army. The military system has been entirely remodelled ; 
and her educational establishments and system of training, both 
elementary and professional, for officers and men are of a very 
high order. The present organization of the army is based 
on the law of 1868. Every male citizen capable of bearing 
arms becomes liable for military service on the completion 
of his twentieth year, and must serve personally, substitutes 
not being allowed. Temporary exemptions are granted in 
certain cases, as where an only son is the sole support of his 
parents, or a grandson of his grandparents, or the like. Those 

ARMY. 105 

who from physical incapacity, are unfit for service, are required 
to contribute a sum of money in proportion to their means 
to the military pension fund. 

The military strength of the country consists in the stand- 
ing army, marines, landwehr, ersatz-reserve, and landsturm. 
The standing army is maintained for the defence of the country 
against a foreign foe, and for the preservation of peace and 
order at home. The period of service in the standing army and 
in the marines, extends over twelve years, three of which are in 
the line, 7 in the reserve, and two in the landwehr. The men 
in the reserve are only called out periodically for exercise. 
The landwehr is intended to support the standing army in 
time of war, and for home defence. Those in the landwehr are 
liable to serve for twelve years. They are usually called up for 
eight weeks training on first joining, and for fourteen days 
annually afterwards. The ersatz-reserve is a body of reserve, 
designed to furnish recruits to the standing army and marines 
in time of war, and to replace the casualties of the field. 
They are not trained at all, but for ten years remain liable 
to be called up in the event of war. The number may not 
exceed that of one year's contingent to the active army, and the 
annual addition to it is one-tenth of this number. The land- 
sturm is made up of volunteers who are not included in any 
of the above classes. Its business is to support the standing- 
army and the landwehr in the time of war, and to engage the 
enemy if he should invade the country. At present it exists 
only in Hungary, and Tyrol and Vorarlberg, where all males 
from 18 to 45 (in Vorarlberg to 50) not included in the other 
classes are enrolled in the landsturm. Besides these, there 
has lately been introduced a system of military training for 
youths on leaving school, who volunteer for that purpose. 
They equip and maintain themselves, and if in the cavalry, 
provide and maintain a horse ; but for youths of promise who 
are without means these expenses are provided for by the 
state. They spend a year in active service, and then pass 
into the reserve. 



The number of young men coming of age, and fit for military 
service amounts to from 140,000 to 150,000 annually. Of these 
about 95,500 are passed into the army, about 9500 into the 
ersatz-reserve, and the balance, averaging about 40,000, into the 
landwehr. The landwehr thus comprises two years con- 
tingents of old soldiers, which may be estimated at about 
150,000, and 12 years contingents of 40,000, making a total 
of about 500,000. The actual organization, however, only 
provides for incorporating about 200,000 of this number. 

The total strength of the Austria-Hungarian army, in active 
service, at the end of 1876 was, on the peace footing 267,005 
men, to be raised during war to 800,000. The annual con- 
tingent for the standing army and marines, amounts to 95,474, 
of which Austria furnishes 54,541, and Hungary 40,933. The 
army on the peace footing, consists of 80 regiments of infantry 
numbering 148,320 men; 1 regiment of Tyrolese rifles, and 
6 battalions of rifles with 21,451 men ; 41 regiments of cavalry 
(41 dragoon, 16 Hussar, and 11 lancers) with 43,993 men; 
13 regiments of field artillery and 12 garrison battalions with 
30,795 men; 2 regiments of engineers and 1 regiment of 
pioneers with 9462 men ; and others. According to the army 
registers there were in active service or on leave at the end of 
1876 15,702 officers and 828,320 men, to which if we add 
the landwehr amounting to 213,375, we have a total force 
of 1,057,997 men. In addition to this the landsturm of 
Hungary, Tyrol, and Vorarlberg is available in the case of the 
country being invaded by an enemy. 

The Austrian Navy at the end of 1876, consisted of 69 
vessels of all sizes, having in all 17,796 horse power, carrying 
443 guns, and manned by 8459 men. Of these 8 were iron- 
clad ships, 3 iron-clad frigates, 2 frigates, 10 corvettes, 9 gun- 
boats, and 2 river monitors. 

Finance. — The revenue and expenditure are presented in 
three distinct budgets : (1) that of the Delegations for the 
whole Monarchy, (2) that of the Austrian Reichsrath for 
Austria, and (3) that of the Hungarian Reichstag for Hungary, 


By an arrangement of 1868, Austria pays 70 per cent, and 
Hungary 30 per cent, towards the common expenditure of the 
monarchy. Subsequently when the Military Frontier was 
included in Hungary, it became liable for 2 per cent. more. 
In the budget for 1879, the total expenditure of the Monarchy 
is given at 13,853,738/., of which 10,356,584/. is ordinary 
and 3,497,153/. extraordinary, the latter being chiefly made 
up of a sum of 3,357,786/. required for the army of occupation 
in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Of the ordinary expenditure 
402,513/. was for foreign affairs, 9,007,519/. for the army, 
745,152/. for navy, 188,850/. for finance, and 12,550/. for 
Board of Control. The receipts were, from the different 
branches of the administration 326,358/., from the customs 
1,184,100/., leaving 12,343,279/., of which 2 per cent, to be 
raised by Hungary on account of the Military Frontier, and 
the remainder by Austria and Hungary respectively, in the 
proportions of 70 per cent, and 30 per cent. 

The budget of Austria for 1879, gives the total ex- 
penditure at 47,116,365/., and the revenue at 39,256,514/., 
showing a deficit of 7,859,851/. The principal branches of the 
revenue are direct taxes 9,108,000/. ; custom duties 2,396,900/. ; 
duties on articles of consumption 6,608,300/. (of which beer 
2,200,000/., brandy 900,000/., and sugar 1,800,000/.) ; salt 
monopoly 1,938,800/. ; tobacco monopoly 5,900,000/. ; stamps 
1,724,000/. ; judicial fees 3,196,000/. ; state lottery 2,011,770/, ; 
post office and telegraphs 1,826,300/.; mines 559,760/.; 
domains and forests 377,505/. ; octroi 254,300/. ; state property 
and mint 174,400/. The ordinary expenditure amounted to 
43,501,446/., and the extraordinary to 3,614,918/. Of the 
former there were for the imperial household 465,000/.; Reichs- 
rath 66,530/. ; Council of Ministers 85,297/. ; ministries—of in- 
terior 1,562,154/., national defence 787,721/., religion and edu- 
cation 1,452,965/., finance 7,592,630/., commerce 2,165,710/., 
agriculture 945,247/., justice 1,964,190/. ; pensions, grants, and 
subsidies 1,493,900/. ; share of interest on public debt 
11,538,499/.; proportion of general expenditure 13,280,204/. 


The extraordinary expenditure consisted chiefly of pensions, 
grants, and subsidies 2,344,493/.; share of interest on public 
debt 277,835/.; ministries — of interior 15 1,453/., national defence 
49,400/., religion and education 196,976/., finance 48,620/., 
commerce 214,210/., agriculture 106,575/,, justice 138,290/.; 
Reichsrath 80,000/. The budget for 1880 estimates the entire 
income for that year at 39,999,500/., and the expenditure at 
41,271,200/., showing a deficit of 1,271,700/. 

The Hungarian budget for 1879, estimates the expenditure 
at 25,643,638/., and the income at 22,220,860/., leaving a deficit 
of 3,422,778/. The receipts include direct taxes 8,263,550/. ; 
indirect taxes 8,467,785/. ; state domains, mines, mint, &c. 
2,515,519/.; post office 1,986,844/. The chief branches of 
expenditure are the royal household 465,000/. ; Reichstag 
130,996/.; ministries — of interior 749,246/., war 639,801/., 
religion and education 422,841/., justice 991,436/., agriculture 
and commerce 1,057,237/.; roads, &c. 1,247,088/.; finance 
3,948,735/. ; Croatia and Slavonia 532,220/. ; general debt of 
Hungary 4,335,280/. ; share of common expenses 3,875,789/.; 
share of interest on public debt 3,047,343/. 

The national debt of Austria in 18 15, amounted to 
82,500,000/. ; in 1830 to 108,000,000/.; in 184810 125,000,000/.; 
in 1866 to 291,000,000/.; and in 1878 to 318,587,455/. The 
debt of Hungary at the end of 1877 amounted to 66,017,696/. ; 
in addition to which there is her share of the common debt of 
Austria as at 1868, and also her share (30 per cent.) of the 
common floating debt, which amounted in 1878 to 41,199,998/. 




Lower Austria, Vienna, Wiener Neustadt ; Upper Austria, Linz, 
Steyr ; Salzburg, Salzburg; Styria, Gratis, Marburg; Carinthia, 
Klagenfurt; Carniola, Laibach; Maritime District, Trieste, Gorz,Pola, 
Pirano; Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Innsbruck, Trent; Bohemia, Prague, 
Pi/sen, Reichenberg, Budzveis, Eger ; Moravia, Brunn, Iglau, Possnitz, 
Olmillz; Silesia, Troppau; Galicia, Le7iiberg, Cracow, Brody ; Buko- 
wina, Czemowitz ; Dalmatia, Zara, Spalato, Sebenice, Ragusa ; Hungary, 
Buda-Pesth, Szegedin, Pressburg, Debreczin, Temesvar, Grosswardein ; 
Transylvania, Kronstadt, Klausenburg, Hermannstadt ; Croatia-Sla- 
vonia (including Military Frontier), Agram, Essek, Fiume ; Bosnia- 
Herzgovina, Bosna-Serai, Novi-Bazar. 

Lower Austria (Ger. Niederosterreich or Oesterreich unter der 
Enns) forms the E. part of the Archduchy of Austria, and is 
that part of the country in which the present powerful 
Monarchy took its rise, containing also the capital, Vienna. 
It lies between 47 26' and 49 N. latitude, and 14 26' and 
1 7 1' E. longitude ; and is bounded on the N. by Moravia and 
Bohemia, W. by Bohemia and Upper Austria, S. by Styria, and 
E. by Hungary. Area 7654 square miles, and civil population 
(in 1869) 1,954,251, of whom 967,087 were males and 987,164 
females. The military numbered 36,457, making a total of 

The Danube flows from W. to E. through the province, 
dividing it into two nearly equal parts. The river here has a 
length of about 156 miles and drains the whole territory, with 
the exception of a small portion in the N.W. Its affluents here 
are, except the March, all of small size, the principal being, on 


the right, the Enns,Ybbs or Ips, Erlaf, Traisen,Wien, Schwechat, 
Fischa, and Leitha ; and on the left, the Isper, Krems, Kamp, 
Schmieda, Goller, and March with its affluents the Thaya and 
the Zaya. In the N.W. rises the Lainsitz, which falls into the 
Moldau. The Enns and the March only are navigable, but the 
others are useful for floating down timber, and for various in- 
dustrial purposes. The numerous streams from the Alps afford 
abundant water-power for the many mills and other works on 
their banks. 

About three-fourths of the surface is hilly or mountainous. 
In the S. portions of the northern limestone range of the Alps 
enter the country from Upper Austria and Styria, and in the 
S.E. occur some of the last ridges of the Central Alps. The 
principal summits of the former are the Diirnstein 6040 feet, 
Oetscher 6189, Goller 5776, and the Schneeberg 6810, this last 
being the highest point in Lower Austria. The principal sum- 
mit of the Central Alps here is the Wechsel 5700 feet high. 
The Wienerwald or Forest of Vienna is an offshoot of the lime- 
stone range, and extends in a N.N.E. direction to the Danube. 
Its highest point, the Schopfel, is 2928 feet above the sea. 
The Kahlengebirge is a branch of the Wienerwald, and the 
Leithagebirge in the extreme E. of the province is an offshoot 
of the Central Alps. North of the Danube the southern de- 
clivities of the Bohemian and Moravian Mountains form ridges 
and elevated plains, the boundary of which towards the E. is 
the Mannhartsberg. East of this the surface presents no 
great elevations, but descends gradually to the plain of the 
March. The southern valleys are noted for their natural 
beauties, and are much frequented as summer resorts. Of 
those in the N. the valleys of the Isper and Kamp are re- 
garded as the most beautiful. The plains lie principally along 
the banks of the principal stream. The chief are the Vienna 
Basin, the Kremser Basin, the Tulner Basin, the Marchfeld, 
and the Ipsfeld. 

The climate is in general mild and salubrious, particularly to 
the N. of the Danube and in the hilly parts. In the neigh- 


bourhood of Vienna and in the Eastern portion of the country 
the temperature is more variable. The most fertile portion 
of the province is in the centre, along the Danube. The 
valley of the March and the N.E. portion generally are also 
fertile. The S. and N.W. portions are not so productive to 
the husbandman, though fertile valleys and tracts occur here 
and there. About 40 per cent, of the entire area of the 
province is arable, 34 per cent, in woods and forests, and 14 
per cent, in meadows and gardens. Oats and rye are the prin- 
cipal grain crops, but wheat, barley, and buckwheat are also 
largely grown. Potatoes, various kinds of kitchen vegetables, 
flax, hemp, and other products of the country, are grown here. 
In the W. the rearing of cattle is extensively carried on, and in 
the E. the vine is largely cultivated/particularly in the valley of 
the Danube. The wine produced averages from 18,000,000 to 
20,000,000 gallons annually. Mining and quarrying are ac- 
tively carried on in some parts, principally in coal, iron, anti- 
mony, alum, graphite, limestone, gypsum, building-stones, and 
millstones. Extensive beds of clay also occur, from which 
bricks and earthenware goods are largely made. 

Lower Austria occupies the first rank among the provinces 
of the empire as a seat of manufacturing industry, the great 
centre of which is Vienna and the neighbourhood. The 
annual value of its products is estimated at over 21,000,000/., 
of which about two-thirds are yielded by the capital. They 
include cotton, woollen, linen, and silk goods ; paper, leather, 
sugar, iron, and earthenwares ; glass, beer, brandy, chemicals, 
machinery, &c. In 1877 there were 370 miles of railway, 3260 
miles of roads, and 250 miles of navigable water, in the 

The people are mostly Germans, but the capital contains 
a very mixed population, and on the borders towards Hungary, 
Moravia, and Bohemia, dwell about 200,000 Slavs. About 96 
per cent, of the population are Roman Catholics, 2 per cent. 
Protestants, and 2 per cent. Jews. 

Vienna (Ger. Wieri), the chief town of Lower Austria, and 


the Capital of the Monarchy, stands on the right bank of the 
river Danube, and partly on an island formed by a branch o £ 
that river known as the Wiener Donau or the Donaukana 
(Danube canal), which separates the city proper from its 
suburb Leopoldstadt, and into which flows the small stream 
Wien, from which the city takes its name. It is pleasantly 
situated in the fertile plain of the Vienna Basin, and covers an 
area of about 22 square miles, or including the suburbs about 
36 square miles. In 1872 it contained 10,896 houses, 60 
churches, (53 Catholic, 1 old Catholic, 4 Protestant and 2 
Greek Churches), 2 7 cloisters, and 2 synagogues. The popula- 
tionin 1875 amounted to 673,865, or with the suburbs 1,020,770. 
Latitude 48 12' N., longitude 16 22' E. 

Vienna is the fourth, if not the third largest city of Europe, 
being surpassed only by London and Paris, and perhaps Berlin, 
"It yields to few cities in architectural splendour, and in the 
charms of its environs," and "is one of the most gay, but at 
the same time, most agreeable places of residence on the Con- 
tinent, whether the sojourner devote himself to pleasure, science, 
literature, or art." (Murray 's Handbook?) It consists of the 
old city or inner town (Innere Stadf) and 9 other districts which 
form a circle round it. The names of these districts are (1) 
Leopoldstadt, (2) Landstrasse, (3) Wieden, (4) Margarethen. 
(5) Mariahilf, (6) Neubau, (7) Josefstadt, (8) Alsergrund, and 
(9) Favoriten. The old city was formerly surrounded by fortifi- 
cations, but these have been demolished since 1858, and the 
space which they occupied laid out in streets. The principal of 
these is the Ringstrasse, which forms a belt round this part of 
Vienna 2§ miles long and averaging 186 feet wide. It is 
planted with trees and lined with palatial buildings. Almost 
equally fine streets cross it at different points, and this now 
constitutes the favourite quarter of the wealthy classes. In the 
inner town the streets are generally narrow and irregular, but it 
contains the palace of the emperor, and the palaces of some of 
the principal nobility, the public offices, most of the museums 
and public collections, the finest churches, and the best shops. 


Since, however, the laying out of the site of the old fortifica- 
tions, many of the aristocracy have gone to live there, and there 
too the new public buildings are being generally erected. The 
Danube Canal is crossed by 8 bridges, and the Wien by 15, the 
finest being the Elizabethbrucke over the latter, constructed in 
-1854, and adorned in 1867 with 8 marble statues. Many of 
the principal squares are adorned with monuments and foun- 
tains. The most important square is the Stephansplatz, with 
the cathedral and episcopal palace, constituting the centre of 
Vienna. The Graben, with its attractive shops, is one of the 
most frequented and leading business streets of the city. In 
the centre stands the Trinity column, 66 feet high, represent- 
ing a confused group of figures among clouds, erected by the 
Emperor Leopold L, on account of the cessation of the plague 
of 1679. 

The most imposing edifice in Vienna is St. Stephen's 
Cathedral, erected between 1359 and 1500, on the site of an 
earlier building which dated from the beginning of the twelfth 
century. It is built in the form of a Latin cross, is 354 feet 
long, 230 broad, and 89 high, and has a beautiful tower 
453 feet in height, erected in 1860-64 m place of an earlier 
one which was removed owing to its unsafe condition. The 
Cathedral has also lately undergone thorough restoration. The 
Augustine Church is an elegant structure erected in 1327-39 
and restored 1783. It contains a monument of the Arch- 
duchess Christina of Saxe-Teschen by Canova, which is con- 
sidered one of his finest works, and in an adjoining chapel 
are preserved in silver urns the hearts of the departed 
members of the imperial house. The church of the Capu- 
chins is only remarkable as containing the sepulchral vault of 
the imperial family. The church of St. Carlo Borromeo was 
erected by the Emperor Charles VI. between 1716 and 1737 
in grateful acknowledgment of the plague having been stayed. 
It is a large imposing structure surmounted by a dome, and 
having on each side of the portal a colossal column 145 feet 
in height and 13 feet in diameter with a spiral band of reliefs 



running round each, representing the life and actions of the 
saint. The Votive Church erected by the Emperor Francis 
Joseph in commemoration of his escape from assassination in 
1853 was begun in 1856 and finished in 1879. It is a beautiful 
Gothic structure with a handsome fagade in front and two 
slender towers and spires, richly embellished with delicate and 
beautiful tracery and carvings. 

The imperial palace (Hofburg or Burg) is a large irregular 
pile of buildings, erected at different times and in different 
styles of architecture. It encloses several courts, the prin- 
cipal of which are the Franzensplatz, with a colossal bronze 
statue of the Emperor Francis L, and Josephsplatz, with a fine 
equestrian statue of Joseph II. Within the precincts of the 
palace are the imperial library, containing 410,000 volumes of 
books, and 20,000 MSS. — many of them of great value; the 
treasury; cabinets of natural history, minerals, coins and 
antiquities ; the winter and summer riding-schools ; the court 
theatre ; and chapel. In front of the palace is a large open 
space termed the Outer Burgplatz, separated from the Ring- 
strasse by a railing, and having as an entrance the Outer Burg 
Thor — a massive structure erected in 1822, with five passages, 
and adorned with twelve Doric columns. Adjoining the Outer 
Burgplatz is the Volksgarten, laid out by the Emperor Francis 
in 1824. It contains pleasure-grounds and a cafe, and is 
much frequented in summer. In the centre is the temple of 
Theseus, built on the model of that in Athens, and containing 
a fine marble group of figures by Canova, representing the 
victory of Theseus over the Minotaur. The Belvedere, once 
the residence of Prince Eugene of Savoy, by whom it was 
erected in 1724, consists of two buildings — the Upper and the 
Lower Belvedere, separated by a large garden laid out in the 
French style. The Upper Belvedere contains the imperial 
picture-gallery— one of the best collections in Europe, and 
particularly rich in works of the Flemish and German schools. 
The Lower Belvedere contains the Ambras collection of ancient 
armour and curiosities — so called from the castle of Ambras in 


Tyrol, where it was first formed — and the collection of 
antiquities, including the Egyptian collection. The imperial 
arsenal, erected 1849-55, covers a large space of ground 
outside the city, and contains an interesting collection of 
weapons of war. 

Vienna is possessed of many excellent educational insti- 
tutions, at the head of which is the university, founded in 
1365, and reorganized under Maria Theresa by the celebrated 
physician Van Swieten. It has a library of over 2 20,000 volumes, 
an astronomical observatory, a botanic garden, and various 
museums and laboratories connected with it. In 1875, it had 
283 professors and teachers, and 3810 students. It is par- 
ticularly distinguished as a school of medicine. The 
Josephinum, or Academy of Medicine, is celebrated for its 
anatomical and pathological museum ; and the public hospital 
is an admirably organized institution, with accommodation for 
3000 patients. The Polytechnic Institution for affording 
instruction in practical science, industry and commerce, has 80 
professors and teachers, and about 1400 pupils, with collections 
of industrial products, models of machinery, laboratories, &c. 
The Technological Museum in connexion with it, contains 
about 60,000 specimens of articles in different stages of manu- 
facture, and about 5000 species of raw materials. The 
Academy of Fine Arts, founded in 1705, and reorganized in 
1865, has valuable collections of engravings, drawings, paint- 
ings and casts of ancient and modern sculpture. It has 
22 teachers, and 215 pupils. The Museum of Art was founded 
in 1864, on the plan of the South Kensington Museum, and 
installed in its present handsome building in 1872. The Art 
School in connexion with it has 13 teachers and 240 scholars. 
The Veterinary College is attended by upwards of 1000 pupils ; 
and the Musical Conservatoire has 650 pupils. The Liechten- 
stein picture-gallery is the most extensive of the private 
collections — containing 1600 works by celebrated masters. The 
Archduke Albert collection of engravings and drawings is one 
of the finest in Europe — comprising about 300,000 specimens. 

1 2 


Of the ten theatres in Vienna, the best are the Court Theatre, 
the New Opera House, and the \ City or Stadt Theatre. The 
New Opera House, completed in 1869, is a magnificent edifice, 
externally and internally, and is seated for 3000 spectators. 
It is regarded as one of the finest theatres in Europe. A new 
Court Theatre is at present in course of construction; and 
among the other buildings in course of erection are the new 
Rathhaus, new University Buildings, Art and Natural History 
Museums, new Parliamentary Buildings, and new Palace of 
Justice. A new Exchange was erected in 1869-76. 

Vienna is the great centre of the commerce of the country, 
and of the capital and enterprise necessary to maintain it. 
Six railways from different parts of the Monarchy have their 
termini here. It is also the leading manufacturing town of the 
empire. The principal manufactures are silk stuffs, shawls, gold 
and silver articles, hardware and cutlery, carriages, gloves and 
all kinds of fancy leather articles, musical and philosophical 
instruments, meerschaum pipes, paper, and chemical products. 
The northern arm of the Danube has been brought nearer to 
the city, and made more available for navigation, by means of 
a new channel about 4 miles in length and 300 yards wide, 
commenced in 1867, and opened in May 1875. Further 
extensions of this were completed in 1879, the entire cost 
being about 4,460,000/. Three railway bridges and two public 
bridges cross this channel. Vienna is well supplied with 
excellent water, brought by means of an aqueduct completed 
in 1873, from Schneeberg, 56 miles distant, at a cost of 

The mean annual temperature of Vienna is 50 Fahr., the 
mean summer temperature being 71 , and the mean winter 30 . 
The weather, however, is variable, being subject to sudden 
changes. Formerly Vienna was considered unhealthy, but from 
the greater attention now given to sanitary matters, a great 
improvement has taken place. The death rate is from 25 to 
27 per 1000. 

The country around Vienna is very beautiful, and presents 


many spots of interest. N.E. of the city is the Prater—one of 
the finest public parks in Europe, and much frequented by all 
classes of the people. The Great Exhibition of 1873 was held 
here, and the central portion of the main building, — the great 
Rotunda 344 feet in diameter, with the parts immediately 
connected with it, — have been preserved. The imperial 
summer palace of Schonbrunn, erected by Maria Theresa, is 
situated on the right bank of the Wien, about three miles S. W. of 
the city. The building is large and superbly furnished, the 
gardens are well laid out and very beautiful, and from the 
" Gloriette," a fine view is obtained of Vienna and the country 
around. At Laxenburg, nine miles S. of Vienna, are two imperial 
residences, one of which is a strict imitation of a baronial 
castle of the middle ages. 

The Viennese are, as a rule, a contented, cheerful, and 
happy people. They enjoy much freedom, and possess many 
privileges. Their princes mix freely among them, and are 
regarded by them with affection. They are fond of pleasure, 
and the general tone of their character fits them for quiet 
enjoyment. Hence even the lower orders are characterized 
by mildness, gentleness, and goodhumour. They are uniformly 
kind and obliging, and ready to promote the pleasure of 

Wiener Neustadt, or the New Town of Vienna, is the town 
next in size to Vienna, and contained, in 1869, 19,173 in- 
habitants. It lies twenty-eight miles S. of Vienna, with which it is 
connected by the Neustadter canal, and also by railway — 
being a station on the Vienna-Trieste line. It has an old 
ducal castle, built in n 68, and now used for a military 
academy, which has 48 teachers and 300 pupils. Important 
manufactures are carried on here, of machinery, cotton 
yarn, silk stuffs, ribbons, sugar, &c. The Emperor Maximilian I. 
was born and is also buried here. 

Upper Austria (Ger. Oberosterreich or Oesterreich ob der 
Enns) forms the western portion of the archduchy of Austria, 
and is bounded on the N. by Bohemia, W. by Bavaria, 


S. by Salzburg and Styria, and E. by Lower Austria. It lies 
between lat. 47 27' and 48 47' N., and long. 12 46' and 
15 E., and has an area of 4632 square miles, with (in 1869) 
731,579 inhabitants. 

Like Lower Austria, it is traversed by the river Danube, 
which enters it from Bavaria, below Passau, and divides it into 
two unequal parts, over a fourth part being to the N., and 
nearly three-fourths to the S. of that river. With the ex- 
ception of a small portion on the borders of Bohemia, the 
whole of the province is drained by the Danube. Its 
principal affluents here are, on the right, the Inn, the Traun, 
and the Enns ; and on the left, the Miihl. The Traun flows 
through the Hallstadter and Gmundner or Traun lakes, and, 
after leaving the latter, forms a beautiful waterfall. The 
upper valley of this river abounds in picturesque scenery. 
The Alpine lakes are numerous in Upper Austria, — the more 
important in addition to those mentioned being the Atter or 
Kammer lake, the Mond lake, and the Wolfgang lake. 

The surface of the province is for the most part moun- 
tainous. The northern limestone range of the Alps enters it 
from Salzburg, and, together with its off-shoots, occupies the 
S. portion, while the N. portion is traversed by branches of 
the Bohemian mountain system. The loftiest summits are in 
the Dachstein group, which contains several glaciers, and 
whose highest point, Mount Dachstein, has an elevation of 
9845 feet. The next highest elevation is the Great Priel, 8621 
feet high. The higher mountain parts are generally bare and 
rugged, but lower down they are usually well wooded. The 
principal plains are the Welser Heath, and the Linzer Basin 
— neither of which are of great extent. The most fertile 
tracts lie along the Danube and the valleys that open into it. 
The climate is in general mild, but less so than in Lower 
Austria, owing to its greater elevation, and the proximity of 
high mountains. 

About 90 per cent, of the surface is productive. Of the 
productive area, about 39 per cent, is arable, 37 per cent, in 


woods and forests, 20 per cent, in meadows and gardens, and 
4 per cent, in pastures. The principal crops are oats, rye, 
barley, wheat, potatoes, turnips, beans, peas, lentils, hops, flax, 
and some hemp. The vine is no longer cultivated ; but apples 
and other fruits are largely grown — the former being principally 
used in making cider. The rearing of horses and cattle is 
extensively carried on. The horses are noted for their strength 
and endurance, and the cattle and sheep are also distinguished. 
The chief mineral products are salt and coal. The salt works 
are at Ischl and Hallstadt, in the district of Salzkammergut, 
and produce annually over 1,000,000 cwt. of salt. There are 
also granite, millstone, grindstone, and gypsum quarries. The 
manufactures are not extensive, the principal being hardware 
and cutlery ; linen, cotton, and woollen goods ; leather, paper, 
and beer. A considerable trade is carried on along the 

The inhabitants are almost without exception Germans, and 
are all Roman Catholics, except about 1600 Protestants. 
More than 56 per cent, of the adult population are engaged in 
agriculture, nearly 20 per cent, in manufactures, 2\ per cent, in 
trade and commerce, and 7! in domestic service. 

Linz, the chief town of the province, is beautifully situated on 
the right bank of the Danube, 100 miles W. of Vienna, and 
contains 33,394 inhabitants. It is the seat of various provincial 
and other courts, the see of a bishop, and carries on an active 
trade. Among the principal public buildings are the Cathedral 
with two towers, the church of St. Matthew and that of the 
Capuchins, the Landhaus, Rathhaus, and the old castle now 
used as a barracks. It has an interesting museum, a public 
library of 32,000 volumes, a gymnasium, real school, and a 
number of other educational, as well as a number of charitable, 
institutions. It is an important seat of traffic on the Danube, 
and has a dock for the building of ships. Various branches of 
manufacture are also actively carried on, particularly those of 
woollen, linen, silk, and cotton goods, leather and tobacco. On 
the opposite side of the Danube stands the suburb Urfahr, which 


is connected with it by an iron bridge. Linz was formerly 
defended by 32 towers, named after their founder, Maximilian 
of Este, Maximilian's towers, but most of these have now 
disappeared. One is still standing on the Postlingberg. 

Steyr, Steyer, or Steier is situated at the confluence of the river 
Steyr with the Enns, 22 miles S.E. of Linz. It is chiefly 
celebrated for its manufacture of iron and steel goods ; and is 
sometimes called the " Austrian Birmingham. " It has a 
beautiful Gothic church after the model of St. Stephen's in 
Vienna. Population 13,392. 

Salzburg, Duchy of, is bounded on the N. by Upper 
Austria and Bavaria, W. by Bavaria and Tyrol, S. by Tyrol and 
Carinthia, and E. by Styria and Upper Austria. It lies between 
46 57' and 48 2' N. lat, and 12 6' and 14 E. long., and 
has an area of 2767 square miles, with (in 1869) 151,410, 

. The surface is mountainous, forming a continuation of 
the Tyrolese Alpine land ; only in the N., the valley of the 
Salzach belongs to the elevated plain of Bavaria. The 
Noric Alps stretch along the S. border of the province, and 
are covered with numerous glaciers, having as their 
highest points the Dreiherrenspitze (11,434 feet), Gross 
Venediger (12,053), and the Wieszbachhorn (11,737). The 
Northern Limestone Alps traverse the interior of the province, 
and are divided into several groups by the Saala and the Salzach, 
the most eastern of which, the Tannengebirge, is connected 
with the Dachstein group. Many of the summits are between 
8000 and 9000 feet in height. Parallel ranges of less elevation 
lead by degrees to the flat tract of country in the N. 

The principal river of the province is the Salzach, which 
rises in the S., and in the first part of its course forms the 
Pinzgauer swamps. After receiving, from the right, several 
mountain streams, the most important of which is the Krimmler 
Ache, it breaks through the Limestone Alps by the Lueg Pass ; 
becomes navigable at Hallein ; and after passing Salzburg, 
receives the Saala, and forms the boundary between Austria 


and Bavaria, to its mouth in the Inn. The Krimmler Ache 
forms the finest waterfall in the Monarchy. The rivers Enns 
and Mur have also their sources within the province — the 
former rising in the Pongau, and breaking through the Mandling 
pass, enters Styria, the latter rising in the Lungau, after a short 
course, also flows into Styria. The Alpinejakes are numerous, the 
largest being the Zeller lake. There are also numerous mineral 
springs, the most famous being those of Gastein, which enjoy 
a European reputation. 

About 20 per cent, of the entire area of the province is un- 
productive, and only about 10 per cent, arable; the rest being 
chiefly woods and pastures. The chief agricultural products 
are oats, rye, wheat, potatoes and cabbages. The rear- 
ing of cattle is extensively carried on. The most important 
mineral product is salt ; of which about 400,000 cwt. are 
annually obtained at Hallein. Iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, 
arsenic, and some gold and silver are also found. Marble of 
a fine quality is obtained from a quarry on the Untersberg. The 
manufactures are unimportant, and are chiefly chemical 
products, and wooden, earthen, and ironwares. 

The inhabitants are mostly all Germans and Roman Catholics. 
About 51 per cent, of the adult population are engaged in 
agricultural pursuits or in the forests, 14 per cent, in the manu- 
factures, 9 per cent, in domestic service, and 2 per cent, in trade 
and commerce. 

Salzburg, the chief town of the province, is beautifully 
situated on both sides of the Salzach, in a valley between the 
Monchsberg (Monk's Hill) on the left, and the Kapuzinerberg 
(Capuchiner Hill) on the right. The greater part of the old 
town stands on the left bank of the river, here crossed by four 
bridges. Stately quays have lately been erected on both sides of 
the river, forming pleasant promenades. It is the seat of a 
prince archbishop, and of various provincial and other courts, 
and contains numerous educational and benevolent institutions ; 
among the former being a theological seminary. The town 
has very much the appearance of an Italian city, with its 


flat-roofed houses, its numerous public squares with fountains 
and monuments, and its many churches and chapels, whence 
it is sometimes called the " German Rome." The Cathedral 
is a large and splendid edifice of marble and freestone, in 
the style of St. Peter's at Rome, erected in the 17th century. 
St. Peter's church contains numerous monuments, among 
which is one to Haydn the composer. In the Residenzplatz 
is a beautiful marble fountain, 45 feet in height, and considered 
to be one of the finest in Germany. In Mozartplatz is a 
bronze statue of the composer of that name, who was born 
here. Among the principal buildings are the imperial summer 
palace of Mirabell, the old archbishop's palace, and the 
Rathhaus. On the Nonnberg (Nun's Hill) above the town, 
stands the old castle of Hohensalzburg. The town has an 
excellent museum of natural history and antiquities, and 
several extensive libraries. The manufactures comprise cotton 
goods, leather, hardware, earthenware, glass, pianos, and organs. 
The trade is considerable, particularly in goods on transit. 
Population (1869), 20,336. A Roman town, Juvavia, stood 
here as early as the first century of our era ; and the locality 
is rich in Roman remains. It was made the see of a 
bishopric in 716, soon afterwards raised to an archbishopric. 
The archbishops in time became very powerful, holding 
temporal sway over a large district of country, and being 
princes of the empire. The territory was secularized in 1801, 
when it comprised 3500 square miles, and 250,000 inha- 
bitants. In 1806, it was united to Austria, and in 1809 
transferred to Bavaria, but in 181 6 it was again conveyed 
to Austria. 

Styria (Ger. Steiermark), Duchy of, is situated between 
45° 49' an d 47° 49' N. lat, and 13 34 and 17 1' E. long., 
and is bounded on the N. by Lower and Upper Austria, 
W. by Salzburg and Carinthia, S. by Carniola, and E. by 
Croatia and Hungary. It has an area of 8669 square miles, 
and a population (in 1869) of 1,131,309. 

Styria belongs to the Alpine region of Austria, and is distin- 


guished for its richness in picturesque scenery, and in magni- 
ficent Alpine views, while the valleys and plains are noted for 
the fulness and luxuriance of their vegetation. The N. and W. 
parts are especially mountainous, while, in the S. and E., fruitful 
valleys and plains intermingle with the mountainous and hilly 
portions. The mountains belong to all the three ranges of 
the Alps. The Central Alps enter from Salzburg, and the 
principal chain ends near the mouth of the Liesing in the 
Mur. A second chain forms the separation between the basins 
of the Mur and the Drave, and divides into two branches. 
TheN.E. branch goestoBruck, and, continuing its course from 
the left bank of the river, ends in the Wechsel. The S.E. 
branch tends towards the Drave, and at length, passing to the 
other side of that river, terminates in the Bachergebirge. 
Between the Wechsel and the Bachergebirge, the country is 
filled with off-shoots and inferior branches of the greater 
chains. The Northern Limestone Range of the Alps commences 
from the Dachstein and the Priel groups on the borders of 
Upper Austria, and passes by means of the long group of the 
Hochschwab to the Schnee and Rax Aim. The Southern 
Limestone Range begins from the Sulzbach Alps, on the borders 
of Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, and spreading itself out 
between the Save and the San, is broken through by the 
latter, and afterwards, as the Matzelgebirge, passes into 
Croatia. In the Central Alps, several of the summits rise to 
the height of between 8700 and 9000 feet, and in the 
limestone ranges, several attain to the height of 7500 feet. The 
latter, in particular, abound in narrow passes, wild mountain 
defiles, and picturesque valleys. 

The land is well watered by numerous streams, which are all 
tributaries of the Danube. The four principal streams— the 
Mur, Drave, Save, and Enns — have neither their sources nor 
their mouths within the territory. The most important of these 
is the Mur, which rises in Salzburg, and has a course of about 
200 miles within the province, becoming navigable at Juden- 
burg. The Drave is already navigable when it enters the 


territory from Carinthia, and has a course here of about 75 
miles. The Save comes out of Carniola, and for some distance 
forms the boundary between that province and Styria. The 
Enns is, for the most part of its course here, only a rapid 
mountain stream ; after receiving the Salza at Altenmarkt, it 
becomes navigable. The Traun and the Raab rise in Styria. 
There are, relatively, fewer waterfalls and lakes here, than in 
the other Alpine provinces ; but, on the other hand, it 
possesses numerous mineral springs, The most distinguished 
are those of Gleichenberg and Rohitsch. 

About 90 per cent, of the land is productive ; and of this 
about one-half is in wood, 22 per cent, arable, 1 per cent, vine- 
yards, 16 per cent, garden and meadow, the rest pasture-land. 
The differences in the elevation of the surface, and the 
differences in the climate occasioned thereby, give rise to great 
varieties in the vegetable kingdom. In Lower Styria, agri- 
culture is the principal occupation of the inhabitants, and the 
well-cultivated soil yields abundant crops of all kinds of grain, 
particularly rye, wheat, oats, maize, and buckwheat. Flax, 
hemp, and some hops are also grown. Special care is 
bestowed on the cultivation of the grape and other fruits. The 
vineyards occur chiefly in the circles of Gratz and Marburg ; 
and a considerable quantity of cider is made. The silk-worm is 
also cultivated to some extent. In Upper Styria, owing to the 
less genial climate, the less extent of arable land, and the 
sparser population, agriculture is but little practised, and the 
rearing of cattle receives the chief attention. The horned 
cattle and sheep of this province are distinguished, as are also 
the horses. The principal mining products are iron, coal, and 
salt. Styria is the greatest iron producing province in Austria, 
and yields annually an average of about 2,000,000 cwt. ot 
wrought iron. Of brown coal, the annual produce is about 
16,000,000 cwt., and of salt 280,000 cwt. Its chief industries 
are connected with the working of iron, and the manufacture 
of iron and steel goods, for which it is justly distinguished. 
Its wares are exported to Germany, France, Italy, and Russia. 


The other industries are mostly of small extent and un- 
important, and confined chiefly to Gratz and the neighbourhood. 
An active trade is carried on by road and rail with different 
parts, particularly Vienna and Trieste. 

About 63 per cent, of the population are Germans, and 37 
Slovens ; and about 99 per cent, are Roman Catholics. 
Agriculture and the forests afford employment to 7 2 per cent, 
of the adult population, and about 13 per cent, are employed 
in the manufactures, of which 8 per cent, are in the various 
kinds of iron works. 

Gratz (Ger. Graz), the chief town of the province of Styria, 
is situated in a charming valley on both sides of the river Mur, 
here crossed by 5 bridges, at the height of 1094 feet about the 
level of the sea, and 140 miles S.S.W. of Vienna. It consists 
of an old town or city proper, on the left bank of the river, 
and five suburbs, having in all a population of 86,369 in 1876. 
The streets in the old town are mostly narrow and irregular, 
but the suburbs contain many fine streets and elegant houses. 
In the neighbourhood are many beautiful walks and objects 
of interest. On the Schlossberg stands the ruins of the old 
castle, destroyed by the French in 1809. The cathedral is a 
Gothic building erected by the Emperor Frederick III., in 
1462, and containing many monuments, and some fine paintings. 
Near it stands the mausoleum of the Emperor Ferdinand II. 
and his family. Among the other principal buildings are the 
citadel, the Landhaus — where the estates meet and which 
contains a large collection of old arms and armour — and the 
Rathhaus. It is the seat of the provincial and other courts, 
and of the bishop of Seckau, and contains numerous 
educational and charitable institutions. Among the former 
are the university, having, in 1876, 99 professors and teachers, 
and 878 students; and the technical high school, with 44 
teachers and 246 pupils. The Johanneum, founded by the 
Archduke John, in 181 1, contains collections of objects in 
natural history and technology, and a library of about 70,000 
volumes. Its chief manufactures are iron and steel goods, 


chemicals, sugar, paper, leather, glass, and earthenware. Being 
in the line of railway between Vienna and Trieste, it carries on 
a considerable trade with these places, and also with Hungary 
and Croatia. 

Marburg is situated on the left bank of the Drave, 36 miles 
S. of Gratz, and with its three suburbs contains a population of 
12,828 persons. It is the seat of a bishop, and has a theo- 
lbgical and other seminaries. The principal buildings are the 
cathedral and the castle. The manufactures are unimportant ; 
but a considerable trade is carried on in iron wares, corn, 
fruit, and wine. 

Carinthia (Ger. Karnthen), Duchy of, is bounded on the 
N. by Styria and Salzburg, W. by Tyrol, S. by Italy, Gorz, and 
Carniola, and E. by Styria. It lies between lat. 46 20' and 
47 7' N., and long. 12 40' and 15° 6' K, and has an area of 
4005 square miles, with a population, in 1869, of 336,400. 

The surface is for the most part mountainous, interspersed 
with numerous valleys, which sometimes open out into con- 
siderable plains. The mountains in the N.W. and N. belong 
to the Central Alps. In the extreme N.W. is the Grossglock- 
ner, rising to the height of 12,455 ^ eet above the sea, with the 
great glacier of the Pasterze. Parallel ranges to the main 
chain run through the N. part of the province, some of the 
summits rising to the height of 9000 and io ; ooo feet. In the 
S. is the Southern Limestone Range of the Alps — consisting of 
the Carnic Alps, which separate it from Italy, the Karawanko, 
between it and Carniola, and a portion of the Sulzbach Alps, 
dividing it from Styria. These rise, in some parts, to the 
height of 7000 and 8000 feet, and they also contain several 
important passes. The principal river is the Drave, which 
flows from W. to E. through the centre of the province, having 
a course here of about 90 miles. Its principal affluents are, 
from the left : — the Moll, the Lieser, the Gurk, and the 
Lavant ; and from the right, the Gail. There are numerous 
lakes, the principal of which are the Worther, the Ossiaker and 
the Milstatter. There are a number of mineral springs, but 


none are in high repute. In the N.W. the climate is severe, 
but in the lower parts it is milder and more genial. 

About 1 2 per cent, of the surface is unproductive. Of the 
productive land about 61 per cent, is in woods and forests, 
15 per cent, arable, 12 per cent, in meadows and gardens, and 
12 per cent, in pasture-land. The chief grain crops are oats, 
rye, wheat, barley, maize, and buckwheat. The vine is culti- 
vated only in a few favourable situations. The rearing of 
cattle is extensively carried on in the valleys and on the decli- 
vities of the mountains. It is however for its mineral products, 
and the industries depending thereon, that this province is 
most distinguished. The principal of these products are iron, 
lead, zinc, and coal. About 1,340,000 cwt. of wrought iron, 
72,000 cwt. of lead, 20,000 cwt. of zinc, and 1,200,000 cwt. of 
brown coal, are annually obtained. The manufacturing 
industries are chiefly connected with the working of the metals, 
and, in particular, the iron and steel wares of Carinthia rank 
with the best in the Monarchy. A considerable trade is 
carried on. 

About 71 per cent, of the population are Germans, and 29 
per cent. Slovens, who live mostly to the south of the Drave. 
The Roman Catholics form about 95, and the Protestants 5 
per cent. Over 68 per cent, of the adult population are em- 
ployed in agriculture and the forests, 14 per cent, in manu- 
facturing and mining industries (6 per cent, being employed 
in connexion with iron and lead alone), and 4! per cent, in 
trade and commerce. 

Klagenfurt, the chief town of the province of Carinthia, is 
situated on the right bank of the river Glan, an affluent of the 
Gurk, 60 miles W.S.W. of Gratz. Population including the 
four suburbs 15,285. Among the principal buildings are the 
cathedral and the parish church, the Landhaus, the bishop's 
palace (with collections of natural history, antiquities, and art), 
the Rathhaus and the castle. It has manufactures of white 
lead and woollen stuffs, and carries on an active transit trade. 
The neighbourhood is rich in Roman and other remains. 


. Carniola (Ger. Krain), Duchy of, is bounded on the N« 
by Carinthia, N.E. by Styria, E. and S. by Croatia, and Wl 
by Gorz, and Istria. It lies between 45 18', and 46 40' 
N. lat., and between 13 44' and 14 44' E. long., having an 
area of 3855 square miles, and a population in 1869 of 


The surface is for the most part mountainous. In the N. 
and N.W. occur portions of the Southern Limestone Range of 
the Alps. In the N.W. stands the Terglou group, the highest 
point of which, Mount Terglou, is 9371 feet above the sea. 
Further E. runs the Karawank range, common to Carniola 
and Carinthia, followed by the Steiner Alps, the name given in 
Carniola to the Sulzbach Alps, and having as their highest 
elevation Mount Grintouc, 8296 feet high. The valleys of 
the Izonzo, Idria, and Zeyer separate these Alps from the 
elevated plain region of the " Karst," which occupies the S.W. 
and S. The peculiarities of this region are broad, rocky 
ridges; troughs and funnel-shaped depressions; underground 
caverns and passages; few open river courses, but streams 
flowing underground, and waters that periodically disappear 
and reappear. Some of the caverns here are of great extent 
and famous, as the Adelsberg grotto, the Magdalena grotto, 
and the Planina grotto. Fertile spots, however, occur here 
and there in this region. In the E. the Karst passes into a 
hilly district, rich in vineyards, which towards the N. spreads 
itself out into the Gurker plain, and in the S. rises into the 
Uskoken mountains. Carniola has more and larger plains 
than Carinthia, the principal being the Gurker plain (the most 
fertile), and the plain of Laibach (the most unproductive, 
chiefly moor). 

The principal river of the province is the Save, which is 
formed by the union of two small streams, the Wurzner Save, 
and the Wocheiner Save, and has a course here of about 120 
miles. It receives most of the other streams, the Zeyer, 
Laibach, Feistritz, Gurk, and Kulpa. The most remarkable 
of these is the Laibach, which rises as the Poik, and after a 


course of 13 miles, disappears in the Adelsberg grotto. 
After receiving there several streams, it reappears as the Unz, 
flows through the valley of Planina, and again disappears to 
reappear at Upper Laibach, when it takes the name of Laibach, 
becomes then navigable, and at length empties itself into the 
Save below the town of Laibach. The principal mountain 
lakes are the Wocheiner, Wurzner, and Veldes. The Zirknitzer 
lake in the Karst, is subject to periodical ebbs and flows, and 
sometimes almost entirely disappears. Carniola only possesses 
two mineral springs of any note, at Teplitz and Veldes. 

About 5! per cent, of the surface is unproductive. Of the 
productive land 46 per cent, is in wood, 14 per cent, arable, 
17 per cent, in meadows and gardens, 1 per cent, vineyards, 
and 22 percent, pastures. The chief grain crops are wheat, 
rye, oats, barley, maize, millet, and buckwheat. The produce, 
however, does not equal the home consumption, and a con- 
siderable quantity is annually imported, chiefly from Hungary. 
The rearing of cattle is not so extensively nor so successfully 
carried on here, as in most of the other provinces. The 
principal mineral product is quicksilver at Idria, the richest 
source in Europe after Almaden in Spain, yielding annually 
about 6400 cwt. Of wrought iron about 100,000 cwt. are 
annually produced, of brown coal about 3,000,000 cwt, and of 
copper 1800 cwt., besides small quantities of lead, zinc, and a 
few other metals. The manufactures are considerable, but are 
chiefly conducted on a small scale. The principal of them 
are carried on in and around the capital Laibach. They in- 
clude hardware, cotton and woollen goods, sugar, paper, leather, 
cigars, and chemicals. A considerable trade is also carried on. 

Of the inhabitants of Carniola 91 per cent, are Slovens, 
and only 5! per cent. Germans, chiefly in Upper Carniola, 
while the remaining $\ per cent, are Croatians who inhabit 
the south. In Laibach, the chief town, however, 40 J per cent, 
of the inhabitants are Germans, and not more than 59 per 
cent. Slovens. They are almost all Roman Catholics, the 
Protestants numbering only 350. About 69 per cent, of the 


adult population are employed in agriculture and the forests, 
10 per cent, in the manufactures, and \\ per cent, in trade 
and commerce. 

Laibach) the chief town of the province of Carniola, is 
situated in a valley on both sides of the river of the same 
name here crossed by six bridges, 78 miles S.S.W. of Gratz, 
and 52 miles N.E. of Trieste. Population with eight suburbs 
(1869), 22,593. It is built partly round a steep hill, the 
Schlossberg, the old castle on which is now used as a prison. 
It is a bishop's see, and among the principal buildings are the 
cathedral of St. Nicholas with a number of beautiful paintings and 
monuments, the citadel, Rathhaus, bishop's palace, Auersberg 
palace, lyceum, and theatre. It has a number of educational 
institutions, a museum, and a library of 35,000 volumes. Its 
manufactures are unimportant, chiefly cotton goods, and re- 
fined sugar ; but it carries on an active transit trade, being on 
the line of railway between Vienna and Trieste. It occupies 
the site of the ancient y£mona, and is noted for a congress 
held here in 182 1. 

Maritime District, the^ (Ger. Kustenland), comprehends 
the princely county of Gorz and Gradisca, the Margraviate of 
Istria, with the Quarnerian Islands, and the free imperial city 
and district of Trieste. It lies between lat. 44 29' and 46 
28' N., and long. 13 25', and 14 50' E. ; and is bounded 
on the N. by Carinthia and Carniola, E. by Carniola and 
Croatia, S. by the Adriatic, and W. by Italy. It has an area 
of 3082 square miles, and a population in 1869 of 582,079; 
as follows, Gorz and Gradisca, area 11 39 square miles, popula- 
tion 204,076, Istria and the islands, area 1907 square miles, 
population 254,905, and Trieste and district 36 square miles, 
population 123,098. 

The N.W. portion of the country is occupied by branches 
of the Southern Limestone Range of the Alps, the main chain 
of which extends along its border. The highest point here, 
Mount Canin, rises to the height of about 7300 feet. The 
rest of the country is mostly occupied by the region of the 


Karst, the S.W. portion of which is here, while the N.E. por- 
tion is in Carniola. In Istria the elevated country descends 
gradually to the sea by a series of terraces, which are broken 
up into plateaus by deep water-courses running E., S., and W. 
The district at the mouth of the Isonzo is low-lying and flat. 
The hilly country in the S.W. is fertile, but otherwise the dry 
and sterile Karst is little productive. As in Carniola it abounds 
in caverns, many of which are of great extent, and have re- 
markable stalactitic formations. Among the principal are 
the grottos of Corgnale and San Servolo. 

The principal river is the Isonzo, which rises on the W. 
side of the Terglou, flows generally S. ; with many windings, in 
a mostly narrow mountain valley, receives the Idria and the 
Wippach, takes the name of Sdobba, and falls into the bay of 
Monfalcone. The rivers Quieto and Arsa in Istria, have only 
very short courses. 

About 6\ per cent, of the surface is unproductive. Of the 
productive land about 41 per cent, is pasture-land, 25 per cent, 
in wood, 19 per cent, arable, 12^ gardens and meadows, and 
2\ vineyards. Olive and chestnut-trees occupy about 0.6 per 
cent. The principal grain crops are maize (43 per cent.), 
wheat (30 per cent), barley, rye, oats, and rice (in the Isonzo 
plain). Among the fruits are figs and almonds. About 
8,500,000 gallons of wine are annually produced, and a con- 
siderable quantity of olive oil. The silkworm is also cultivated. 
The pasture-land though of great extent, is generally poor, 
and the cattle, sheep, and horses, are of inferior qualities. 

There are no metals found here, but coal is worked in 
several places. Istria contains abundance of building stone 
and marble, in which an active trade was formerly carried on 
with Venice. The manufactures are unimportant. Trieste 
is more of a commercial than a manufacturing city. Some 
silk manufactures, cotton spinning, and sugar refining, are 
carried on in Gbrz and Gradisca. On the coast fishing is 
actively carried on, and ship-building, as also the manufacture of 
sea salt. The salt works of Capo dTstria and Pirano, produce 

k 2 


annually about 600,000 cwt. of salt. The bays and harbours 
here are of great importance to Austrian navigation. 

In Trieste and its district more than one-half of the in- 
habitants are Slovens, about 34 per cent, are Italians, 8 per 
cent. Germans, and \\ per cent. Jews. In Gorz and Gradisca 
I of the people are Slovens, \ Friulians, 7 per cent. Italians, 
and 1 per cent. Germans. In Istria 56 per cent, are Serbo- 
Croatians, 31 per cent. Italians, 12 per cent. Slovens, and 1 per 
cent. Roumanians. Over 6 per cent, of the adult population 
are engaged in trade and commerce, 13 percent, in the manu- 
factures, and 42 per cent, in agriculture and the forests. 

Trieste (Ger. Trieste Ital. Trieste), the chief town of the Mari- 
time District, and also the principal seaport of the Monarchy, 
is beautifully situated at the foot of the declivities of the 
Karst, on a gulf of the same name, at the head of the 
Adriatic Sea, 230 miles S.W. of Vienna, and 73 miles E.N.E. 
of Venice ; lat. (of observatory) 45 38' 50" N., long. 
1 3 46' 30" E. The neighbouring heights, once naked and 
barren, have been, at great cost, covered with earth and ren- 
dered fruitful, so that they now present gardens, orchards and 
vineyards, with many elegant villas. 

Trieste occupies the site of the Roman colony Tergeste, but 
in the middle ages it was only an inconsiderable seaport. In 
1 7 19 it was made a free port by the Emperor Charles VI., and 
thus freed from many of the restrictions that then interfered 
with the growth of commerce ; but even in the middle of the 
1 8th century it only contained about 6400 inhabitants. 
Maria Theresa greatly improved the harbour, and conferred 
upon the town many privileges, and from this time it began to 
rise into importance. In 18 10 its population amounted to 
29,908, in 1830 to 42,913, in 1840 to 57,519, and in 1869 to 
70,274. The establishment of the Austrian Lloyd's Company, 
whose head-quarters are here, and the opening up of commu- 
nication by railway with Vienna, have done much to advance 
the prosperity of the town. In 1849 it was made a free 
imperial city. 


It consists of an old and a new town or Theresienstadt, with 
the more recently formed parts — Josephstadt and Franzensvor- 
stadt. The old town is built partly on the slopes and partly at 
the foot of the Schlossberg, a hill which overlooks the town, and 
is crowned by an old castle with fortifications. The streets here 
are generally narrow and crooked, and the houses small ; but 
it also contains a number of public squares. The new town 
is regularly laid out with wide and spacious streets, crossing 
each other at right angles, and lined with handsome houses. 
A spacious canal extends through the centre of the new town, 
dividing it into two parts. The cathedral of St. Just is a very 
ancient edifice, originally founded in the fourth century. It is 
in the Byzantine style, consists of a nave and four aisles, and 
contains many relics. The tower is believed to stand on the 
remains of an ancient temple of Jupiter. The Tergesteum is 
a vast quadrangular building containing the exchange, the 
Austrian Lloyd's offices, a bazaar, concert and ball rooms, a 
reading-room, &c. Among the other principal buildings are the 
new Rathhaus, the old exchange, large opera-house, and railway 
station. It has also a meteorological and astronomical obser- 
vatory, natural history and archaeological museum, public library, 
large hospital, three theatres, and an imperial academy with de- 
partments for commerce, navigation, and shipbuilding. The 
manufactures are secondary to the shipping, and are chiefly 
of articles required by ships. Besides shipbuilding, there are 
carried on rope and sail-making, the making of machines, and 
soap, oil, candles, beer, rosoglio, &c. The Lloyd's Company 
have extensive works here for shipbuilding, the making of en- 
gines, and other important works. This company was formed 
in 1833, and in 1878 it had a fleet of 71 steamers of 15,985 
horse-power and about 85,000 tons' burden. The railway 
company have constructed a spacious harbour to the N. of the 
town for the convenience of their traffic. In 1877, 8522 
vessels, having in all 1,089,272 tons, entered; and 85 11 
vessels, with 1,077,953 tons, left the port. The total value 
of the imports during that year was 14,027,700/., and of 


exports, 10,588,100/. The imports are chiefly from England, 
Turkey, Italy, and Egypt \ the exports chiefly to Italy, England, 
Turkey, and Egypt. A considerable trade is also carried on 
with America, and especially Brazil. The harbour is on the 
whole good, and is well protected except on the N.W. It is 
bounded on the S. by the Mole of St. Theresa, on the 
extremity of which is a lighthouse, and opposite to it is the 
New Lazaretto, with a basin capable of holding 60 or 70 
vessels in quarantine. The harbour is semicircular in form, 
lined with spacious quays, and deep enough to admit large 
vessels, while vessels of the largest size can anchor in the 
roadstead outside. 

Gorz, the chief town of the county of Gorz and Gradisca, 
is situated on the Isonzo, 26 miles N.N.W. of Trieste. It is 
the see of a bishop, and the seat of various provincial and 
other courts. Among the principal buildings are the cathedral, 
the castle — formerly occupied by the Counts of Gorz, now 
used as a prison— the bishop's palace, and the Landhaus. The 
manufactures are inconsiderable ; but an active trade is carried 
on in the productions of the district. Charles X. of France 
died here in 1836, and is buried in the Franciscan cloister of 
Castagnovizza in the vicinity. Population (1869), 16,659. 

Po/a, a fortified seaport town of Istria, situated near the S. 
extremity of the Istrian peninsula, 54 miles S. by E. of Trieste. 
It was made the chief naval station of the Monarchy in 1850, 
and since that time its population has increased from 1 1 00 to 
16,324 in 1869. It is strongly fortified, both towards sea and 
land, and the harbour is very commodious and safe, being 
capable of accommodating the entire fleet. It has a great 
naval arsenal, docks, wharves, and other establishments. As 
a trading port, it ranks next after Trieste and Fiume, a chief 
article of export being building stones. It has a cathedral 
dating from the fifteenth century, two other churches, an 
hospital, theatre, &c. There are also remains of a Roman 
amphitheatre, temple, triumphal arch, &c. 

Pirano is a seaport town of Istria, situated on a peninsula, in 

i < 

i (V! 


the Gulf of Trieste, 15 miles S.W. of the town of that name. It 
has an old castle whose walls and towers appear amid olive- 
groves, an interesting gothic parish church, and a Rathhaus, 
The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in navigation, fishing, and 
the salt works in the vicinity. Population, io,-8ii. 

Tyrol (Ger. Tirol) and Vorarlberg, a princely county, 
lying between 45 38' and 47 45' N. lat., and 9 32' and 
12 39' E. long., and bounded on the N. by Bavaria, E. by 
Salzburg ; Carinthia, and Italy, S. by Italy, and W. by Italy, 
Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. Area, 11,320 square miles. 
Population (1869) 878,907. Of Vorarlberg alone, area 1004 
square miles, population 102,624. 

Tyrol is the most mountainous province of Austria and 
contains several of the loftiest summits in the Monarchy. In 
many respects it resembles Switzerland, and may be regarded 
as a continuation of that country. Here, too, there are moun- 
tains of great elevation, immense fields of snow, glaciers, 
avalanches, waterfalls, and precipices. About -^ of the surface 
is mountainous. The three great chains of the Alps — the 
Central, and the Northern and Southern Limestone Alps pass 
through the country. Three principal valleys lie between 
these — the valleys of the Inn and the Adige, and the 
Pusterthal. The northern limestone chain passes through 
Vorarlberg, and then stretches along the northern border of 
Tyrol from W. to E. It is divided into four distinct groups 
by the valleys of the Lech, the Isar, and the Inn. Northward 
it descends gradually to the high plain of Bavaria, while 
towards the south its descent is mostly rapid and precipitous. 
The Central Alps or the Tyrolese Alps Proper separate the 
valleys of the Inn and the Adige, and extend through the 
country in an easterly direction, giving off branches to the 
N. and S. It has numerous glaciers, and its principal summits 
rise to the height of from 9000 to 12,000 feet. The southern 
limestone range stretches mostly along the southern border of 
the province, and is divided by the Adige into two groups. It 
contains the Ortlerspitze, the highest point in Austria, being 


12,814 feet in height. From all these principal chains 
branches go off in different directions and cover most of the 
surface of the country. 

The waters of Tyrol are conveyed in three different 
directions, into -three distinct seas — into the North Sea by the 
Rhine, the Black Sea by the Danube, and the Adriatic Sea by 
the Adige, &c. The Rhine flows along the W. border of 
Vorarlberg for about 18 miles, and receives from that part a 
few streams, the principal of which is the 111. More extensive 
is the portion of country drained by the Danube, which 
receives the Lech, Isar, Inn, Drave, and several other streams. 
But the largest portion of the province is drained into the 
Adriatic by the Adige with the Eisak and Lavis, the Sarca 
afterwards the Mincio, and the Brenta. A portion of Lake 
Constance, and a large part of Lago di Garda lie within the 
borders of Tyrol, but the other lakes are all of small size. 

The climate varies greatly in different parts. To the S. of 
the Alps it is much milder than to the N., and is milder 
in those valleys that are open towards the S. than in those 
which are exposed to the N. At Innsbruck the mean an- 
nual temperature is 45 °, at Meran 50.7°, and at Roveredo 
5 1. 2 . The average annual fall of rain at Innsbruck is 34 

About 17.4 percent, of the surface is unproductive. Ot 
the productive land only about 6.9 per cent, is arable, 
1.2 per cent, vineyards, 13.4 per cent, meadows and gardens, 
31 per cent, pasture-land, and 47.5 woods and forests. In 
none of the other provinces of Austria is there so much un- 
productive land as in Tyrol. Agriculture here, too, is generally 
attended with difficulties, particularly in the higher regions, so 
that it is mostly in a very backward state. In S. Tyrol, and 
in the lower valley of the Inn, the principal grain crop is maize. 
In other parts the chief grain crops are rye, barley, wheat, and 
oats. Among the other products are flax, hemp, and tobacco. 
Fruit is extensively cultivated, and much of it is of very 
superior quality, including apples, peaches, almonds, figs, 


lemons, oranges, &c. Wine is a principal product of S. Tyrol ; 
and here, too, the mulberry- tree is largely cultivated, — about 
20,000 cwt. of cocoons being annually produced. The forests, 
also, are valuable, and produce annually a large amount of 
timber, much of which is sent into Italy. The rearing of 
cattle is extensively carried on, and large quantities of butter 
and cheese are made, the latter especially being distinguished 
for its excellence. Among the wild animals found here are 
the chamois, red deer, hare, and wild fowl. Tyrol was formerly 
rich in the precious metals, but at present its principal mineral 
products are salt, coal, and iron, but only the first is largely 
obtained. The salt-mines at Hall produce annually about 
450,000 cwt. of salt. Among the metals obtained here, besides 
iron, are gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. There are also 
important marble quarries in S. Tyrol. 

Tyrol is not a great manufacturing province, and generally 
the manufactures are on a small scale. Vorarlberg, particularly 
the valley of the Rhine, is a great seat of the cotton manu- 
facture. In other parts linen and woollen stuffs are largely 
manufactured, but chiefly as domestic industries. In S. Tyrol 
the principal manufacture is silk. Among the other manu- 
factures are iron-ware and machinery, wooden-wares, paper, 
leather, sugar, tobacco and beer. An active trade is carried 
on by Tyrol with other parts of the Monarchy, and also with 
Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. The most important rail- 
way is that from Kufstein on the borders of Bavaria, by 
Innsbruck, through the Brenner Pass, to Botzen and Verona. 
The exports are chiefly wine, silk, cattle, wood, salt, and 
cotton goods ; the imports, corn, colonial produce, and various 
industrial products. 

About 60.7 per cent, of the population of Tyrol are Ger- 
mans, of the Bavarian stock; 38.7 per cent, are Italians; and 
1.6 per cent. Ladins. Of the adult population, 54 per cent, 
are engaged in agriculture and the forests; 15.5 per cent, 
are employed in the manufactures ; 3 per cent, in trade and 
commerce ; and 6.8 per cent, in domestic service. The 


inhabitants are all Roman Catholics, with the exception of 
some Protestants and Jews in Innsbruck and Vorarlberg. 

The German Tyrolese are a handsome, strong, and hardy- 
race of men, good-natured, sprightly and gay, fond of out- 
door exercises, and distinguished as marksmen. They are 
trustworthy and brave, but somewhat superstitious ; and have 
an intense love of country, and a strong attachment to the 
imperial house. Formerly, many of the Tyrolese travelled 
abroad over Europe as pedlars, selling the wares of their 
country, to afterwards return with their savings to their own 
land ; and even now it is calculated that over 30,000 of the 
grown population are abroad in this way. In German Tyrol 
the means of education are abundant, and are largely taken 
advantage of; so that in no other part of the Monarchy is the 
school attendance so high. The Italian Tyrolese very much 
resemble other Italians in appearances as well as in manners 
and pursuits. By them education is by no means so highly 
valued or taken advantage of as by their German neighbours. 

Innsbruck, the chief town of Tyrol, is beautifully situated on 
both sides of the river Inn, in a valley enclosed by mountains 
rising to the height of 7000 or 8000 feet. The river is here 
crossed by three bridges, one of which is a handsome iron 
bridge, constructed in 187 1-2 on the site of an old wooden 
one, which gave name to the town. There is a modern chain 
bridge below the town, and between the two is a wooden bridge. 
The town is 1870 feet above the sea, and consists of an old and 
a new town, with several suburbs. The houses are mostly in the 
Italian style, with flat roofs, and frequently ornamented with fres- 
coes. Many of them have arcades below, with shops. The 
principal church is the Franciscan or Court Church, which con- 
tains a beautiful monument to the Emperor Maximilian I., 
reckoned one of the finest works of the kind in Europe. It 
consists of a marble sarcophagus, the sides of which are covered 
with 24 reliefs, representing the principal actions of his life, and 
around it are 28 colossal bronze statues, representing relatives 
of the emperor and other distinguished persons It also contains 


the mausoleum of the Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol, and his 
spouse ; and the tomb of the patriot Hofer, surmounted by a 
marble statue. The imperial palace, erected by Maria Theresa, 
is an extensive building with gardens extending along the Inn 
and forming an agreeable promenade. The university founded 
here in 1673, by Leopold L, has faculties of theology, law, 
medicine, and philosophy, 86 professors and teachers, and 614 
students (in 1876). It has also a library of 61,000 volumes, 
anatomical museum, botanic garden, &c. The city museum, 
or Ferdinandeum, is rich in objects of natural history, art, 
antiquities, &c, connected with Tyrol. The chief manufac- 
tures are silk, woollen, and cotton stuffs, leather, gloves, glass, 
and cutlery. A very active transit trade is carried on. Popu- 
lation (1869), 16,324. 

Trent (Ger. Trient, Ital. Trento, the ancient Tridentinuni), 
the principal town of Southern Tyrol, is pleasantly situated 
on the left bank of the Adige, here crossed by a stone-bridge 
130 feet long, 92 miles S.W. of Innsbruck. It consists of 
the town proper and two suburbs, is surrounded by high 
walls, and built in the Italian style. The cathedral is a fine 
marble edifice dating from the 5th century. The church of 
St. Maria Maggiore is noted as the place where the celebrated 
Council of Trent held its sittings (1545-63), and it has a 
painting with portraits of all the 278 members. The princi- 
pal of the other buildings are the old castle, the bishop's 
palace, the theatre, and Rathhaus. Trent has also a museum, 
rich in local antiquities, and a library of 35,000 volumes. The 
manufactures are not considerable, but an active transit trade 
is carried on. Population (1869), 17,073. 

Bohemia (Ger. Bo/imen), Kingdom of is situated between 
48 34' and 51 3' N. lat. and 12 21' and 16 47' E. long., 
and is bounded on the N. by Prussia and Saxony, W. by 
Bavaria, S. by Upper and Lower Austria, and E. by Moravia. 
Area 20,119 square miles. Population (1869), 5,106,069, of 
whom 2,433,629 were males, and 2,672,440 females. 

Bohemia is almost entirely surrounded by chains of moun- 


tains, the principal of which are the Riesengebirge, on the 
N.E., separating it from Prussia and Silesia, and having as its 
highest point the Schneekoppe, 5248 feet above the sea • the 
Erzgebirge, on the N.W., dividing it from Saxony, but with no 
elevation rising to the height of 4000 feet ; the Bohemian 
Forest on the S.W., between it and Bavaria, having its loftiest 
summit only 4550 feet above the sea; and the Moravian 
Mountains on the S.E., separating it from Moravia, but of no 
great elevation. The surface of Bohemia therefore forms a 
kind of basin shut in on all sides by mountain ranges, and 
hence it is believed to have in ancient times formed a great 
lake, until the waters found an outlet for themselves in the N. 
along the course now taken by the Elbe, which drains almost 
the whole of the interior of the country. The lowest part of the 
land therefore is at the point where the Elbe leaves it, 350 feet 
above the sea, and from this the surface rises on all sides in 
the form of terraces interspersed with ranges of mountains 
usually of no great elevation, and with broad rounded sum- 
mits. Bohemia as a whole has an average elevation of 
about 1000 feet above the sea. The whole of the southern 
portion is over 1250 feet and the highest summits in the in- 
terior rarely rise to more than 2300 feet. The lowest land is 
in the N. in the valley of the Elbe. A considerable stretch of 
low- lying country here, extending from Leitmeritz to Koniggratz, 
has an elevation of from 500 to 800 feet, and few of the 
mountains in the neighbourhood rise to more than 1150 feet. 
Bohemia has no extensive plains nor any large valleys, the 
rivers generally flowing through narrow valleys and ravines. 

Bohemia is well watered. The principal rivers are the 
Elbe and its affluents, the Iser, Moldau, and Eger {szzante). 
The chief affluents of the Moldau are the Wotawa, Sazawa, 
and Beraun. Some small streams on the borders flow to- 
wards the Oder and some towards the Danube. Bohemia pos- 
sesses no lakes of any size, but many small mountain lakes 
occur in the Bohemian Forest. On the other hand, it has 
numerous ponds, particularly in the S., amounting in all to 


several thousands, and occupying an area of more than 150 
square miles. It possesses an immense number of mineral 
springs, several of which are of world-wide fame, and attract 
numerous visitors from all parts, their waters also constituting 
an important article of export. The most famous of these 
are Carlsbad, Marienbad, Franzensbad, Teplitz, Bilin, Piillna, 
Saidschitz, and Sedlitz. 

The climate of Bohemia varies greatly according to the 
elevation of the surface. In the mountainous regions it is 
cold, the higher peaks being covered with snow during a great 
part af the year. In the valleys it is mild and genial, and on 
the whole salubrious. In Prague the average annual tem- 
perature is 46 8' Fahr., being for January 29 6', and for 
July 63 2'. The average annual rainfall in Prague is only 
15.7 inches, and in many parts it does not exceed 20 inches. 
The prevailing wind -in Prague is the S.W. 

Of the entire area of Bohemia only about 3.1 per cent, is 
unproductive; not less than 48. 1 percent, is arable; 29 per 
cent, in wood, 12.1 in meadows and gardens, and 7.7 per cent, 
in pasture. The principal grain crops are rye, oats, barley, 
and wheat. The wheat districts lie principally in the N. and 
W., and the rye districts in the E. and S. The amount of 
grain annually produced exceeds the home consumption, 
and usually affords over 1,700,000 bushels for export. Pota- 
toes are extensively grown and form a chief article of food 
with the poor in the Erzgebirge, the Riesengebirge, and other 
parts. The beet-root is also largely cultivated, for the manu- 
facture of sugar. Among the other products are flax, hemp, 
and hops — the chief hop districts being the circles of Eger, 
Saaz, and Leitmeritz. The low lands along the Eger, and the 
middle and lower valleys of the Elbe, are the most fertile 
parts of the country. Fruits, especially plums, are largely 
grown and exported. Vineyards are only found in a few 
favoured localities, and altogether do not occupy 1000 acres. 
The forests furnish annually a large amount of timber for 
building purposes and also firewood. The rearing of cattle is 


extensively carried on in certain parts, but the cattle generally 
are of inferior kinds. About one-half of the sheep, however, 
are of superior breeds, and produce large quantities of excel- 
lent wool. Many of the horses, too, are of improved races. 

Bohemia is particularly rich in minerals. About 329 cwt. 
of silver are annually obtained, chiefly at Pribram and Joa- 
chimsthal, 1,340,000 cwt. of iron, 4600 cwt. of copper, 7500 
cwt. of lead, 630 cwt. of zinc, 6450 cwt. of sulphur, 154,000 
cwt. of vitriol, 27,000 cwt. of alum, and in lesser quantities 
bismuth and antimony. The amount of coal annually obtained 
is about 2,000,000 tons, besides about 1,700,000 tons of 
brown coal; and there also occur in certain parts extensive 
layers of peat. Precious stones are likewise found in the 
N.E. mountains, as garnets, sapphires, chalcedonies, opals, 

Bohemia ranks as the first manufacturing province in the 
Monarchy. The density of the population, the fertility of the 
soil, the abundance of water-power, and the presence of coal 
and timber, have all contributed to this result. The chief 
seats of manufacturing industry are in the northern parts of the 
province, although certain branches of industry extend over 
the whole country. The value of the manufactured products 
must at least exceed 22,000,000/. annually. The chief manu- 
factures are woollen, linen, and cotton stuffs, and glass. The 
most important of these is the woollen manufacture, of which 
there are about 150 establishments in the province. In the 
Reichenberg district alone, which includes the circles of 
Leitmeritz, Bunzlau, Jiczin, and Koniggratz, it employs more 
than 25,000 hands, and the value of the goods annually pro- 
duced exceeds 1.800,000/. These goods are not only sold 
throughout the Monarchy, but are also largely exported to 
Italy, the Levant, and North America. In the linen manu- 
facture Bohemia excels all the other provinces. It employs 
over 52,000 hands, and the value of the goods produced exceeds 
3,000,000?. annually. Its principal seat is Rumburg, and the 
surrounding district. There are over 80 spinning-factories for 


the manufacture of cotton, with more than 540,000 spindles, 
and producing annually over 120,000 cwt. of yarn. Its princi- 
pal seat is Reichenberg and its neighbourhood. 

Bohemia is particularly distinguished for its glass manu- 
factures, the chief seats of which are Haida, Gablonz, Stein- 
schonau, &c. The annual value exceeds 1,100,000/. The 
iron industry is also considerable, and the value of wrought 
and cast iron annually produced exceeds 150,000/. Machinery 
is largely made in and around Prague, the annual value being 
about 450,000/. Among the other industrial products, for some 
of which Bohemia ranks first among the provinces of the 
Monarchy, are beetroot sugar, leather, paper, porcelain and 
earthenware, beer, and chemicals. 

The productiveness of its soil and the extent of its manu- 
factures naturally give rise to an active trade, which is farther 
favoured by excellent roads and a number of railways run- 
ning in different directions. The river navigation, however, 
is not considerable, being confined to the Elbe and the Moldau. 
The annual value of the exports amounts to about 2,200,000/., 
and of the imports to 2,000,000/., while the value of the goods 
in transit is not much less than the two together. The prin- 
cipal imports are salt, from Upper Austria, colonial produce, 
and raw materials for manufacture ; and the chief exports are 
its various articles of manufacture, corn, and other agricultural 
products, and timber. Almost all the colonial and foreign 
products that come into the Monarchy, through Hamburg, 
and Bremen, pass through Prague. 

Of the population about 61 per cent, are Czechs, 37 per 
cent. Germans, and 2 per cent. Jews. About 96 per cent, 
are Roman Catholics, and 2 per cent. Protestants. Of the 
adult population over 41 per cent, are engaged in agriculture 
and in the forests, 25! per cent, in the manufactures (10 per 
cent, in the textile fabrics, and 6 per cent in the metals), 
nearly 3 per cent, in trade and commerce, and 6| per cent, in 
domestic service. 

Bohemia takes its name from the Boii> a Celtic people 


who inhabited the country at an early period. They were 
subdued by the Marcomanni, and these in turn were dis- 
placed by the Czechs, a Slavonic race, in the 5th century. 
In the latter part of the 9th century the King of Moravia 
subdued Bohemia and introduced Christianity. In 895 it 
became a state of the German empire, and in 1061 the 
Emperor Henry IV. conferred the title of King of Bohemia 
on the then Duke of Prague. On the extinction of the male 
line of this dynasty the country came to be governed by mem- 
bers of the House of Luxemburg, from 1310 to 1437. Dur- 
ing the reign of Wenzel IV. (1378 — 1419), the religious move- 
ment under John Huss and Jerome of Prague took its rise. 
The imprudent measures adopted by the Emperor Sigismund, 
led to a war in Bohemia, which lasted for 16 years (1419-34) 
and ended in its becoming an elective kingdom. In 1458 
George of Podiebrad, a Protestant nobleman, ascended the 
throne and reigned 13 years. His successor, Ladislaus (147 1 — 
1516) was elected (1490) to the throne of Hungary and re- 
moved his residence to Buda. He was succeeded by his son 
Lewis, after whose death in 1626 Hungary and Bohemia 
passed into the hands of Ferdinand I. of Austria who in 1547 
declared Bohemia to be a hereditary possession, and from 
that time it has formed a part of the Austrian empire. 

Prague (Ger. Prag, Czech, Pra/ia), the capital of Bohemia, 
is situated nearly in the centre of the province, on both sides 
of the river Moldau, 154 miles N.W. of Vienna, and 75 miles 
S. by E. of Dresden, with both of which cities it is connected 
by railway. For extent and population it is the third city in 
the Monarchy, and for beauty of situation, quaintness of archi- 
ture, and historical associations, it is unrivalled by any other 
city of Germany. It stands in a valley surrounded on all sides 
by hills, along the slopes of which it ascends in such a way as 
to appear to rise from the water's edge, with building towering 
above building and spire above spire. It contains numerous 
magnificent edifices, and more than 60 singularly formed spires. 
It consists of five divisions or parts — the Altstadt or old 


town, Neustadt or new town, Josephstadt, Kleinseite, and 
Hradschin. The two last are on the left, the others on the 
right bank, of the river. The most populous is the old town, 
in which business is principally carried on, while the Kleinseite 
is the aristocratic quarter, the seat of the courts and govern- 
ment officials. The river is here crossed by seven bridges ; 
the oldest and most frequented is the Karlsbriicke, founded 
by the emperor Charles IV. in 1357. It is 1596 feet long, 
and 32 feet wide, with a tower at each end, and rests on 16 
arches. It is adorned with 28 statues, among which is one of 
St. John of Nepomuk, the patron saint of Bohemia, who is said 
to have been cast into the river from this bridge by order of 
the King Wenzel in 1383. Thousands of pilgrims from all 
parts of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, assemble here annu- 
ally on St. John's day (16th May). Above this is an iron 
suspension bridge, 1508 feet long and 21 feet wide, erected 
in 1 84 1, leading from Kleinseite over the beautiful island of 
Schiitzen to the new town. The Franz-Joseph-Briicke, also 
a suspension bridge, leading from the old town to the grand 
new promenade on the left bank was opened in 1868, and is 
938 feet long, and 36 feet wide. Along the right bank of the 
river extends a magnificent quay, on which stands a bronze 
equestrian statue of the emperor Francis I. Among the prin- 
cipal buildings are the imperial palace erected by the emperor 
Charles IV. in 1333, after the plan of the Louvre in Paris, 
and several times restored ; the magnificent cathedral of St. 
Vitus, somewhat resembling that of Cologne, begun in 1343, 
and still unfinished, containing many beautiful monuments, 
among which a splendid mausoleum of the Kings of Bohemia, 
and a silver monument to St. John of Nepomuk ; the beau- 
tiful church of St. Nicholas ; the Teinkirche, with a monu- 
ment to Tycho Brahe, who is buried here ; the Loretto chapel, 
an exact copy of the famous Santa Casa in Italy; the old 
town Rathhaus, rebuilt in 1840 in the old German style on 
the site of an older edifice, of which the great tower, with a 
curious old clock, still remains ; the new town Rathhaus erected 



in 1370, and greatly altered 1806; the archiepiscopal palace; 
the Czernin palace, one of the largest in Germany, now used 
as a barracks ; the Nostitz palace, with a library, picture-gallery, 
and collection of coins ; the Fiirstenberg palace, with a large 
library and art collections ; the palace of Wallenstein ; the 
Schwarzenberg palace ; and several others. There are in all 
62 Roman Catholic and 3 Protestant Churches, and 10 syna- 
gogues, one of which is very old ; and there is also a curious 
old Jewish burying-ground. The rich abbey of Strahow con- 
tains many interesting objects, and has a valuable library of 
90,000 volumes. The university of Prague was founded by 
the Emperor Charles IV., in 1348, after the model of that of 
Paris, and endowed with many important privileges. In the 
beginning of the 15th century it numbered over 20,000 stu- 
dents, but it soon after declined. In 1876 it had 172 pro- 
fessors and teachers, and 1885 students. It has a library of 
142,000 volumes, a mineralogical and zoological museum, 
botanic garden, observatory, pathological museum, chemical 
laboratory, &c. There are a great many other educational 
institutions, and a number of literary and scientific societies. 
The Polytechnic Institution has lately been completely re- 
organized, and has now a Czech and a German division, the 
former having 47 teachers and 708 scholars, the latter 41 
teachers and 567 scholars. The national museum has collec- 
tions of natural history and antiquities, and a library of 30,000 
volumes. Prague has two theatres, a German and a Bohe- 
mian. The grand new National Bohemian theatre, the 
foundation-stone of which was laid in 1867, will, when finished, 
be one of the finest edifices in the city. The principal pro- 
menades within the city are the people's garden, the imperial 
pleasure-garden, and the Schiitzen and Sophia Islands in the 
river. The old city walls and fortifications are now being 

Prague is one of the principal manufacturing cities, and one 
of the most important places of trade in the Monarchy. Among 
the principal manufactures are cotton, linen, and woollen 


goods, leather, gloves, chemicals, mathematical and musical 
instruments, machinery, cabinet-work, carriages, &c. It is 
the centre of almost the whole trade of Bohemia, for here a 
number of different railways meet and the River Moldau, is 
navigable. The population in 1869 amounted to 157,713, of 
whom about three-fifths were Czechs ; but the capital, enter- 
prise, and learning, are chiefly among the Germans. 

Pilsen, which after Prague is the largest town in Bohemia, 
is situated at the influx of the Mies into the Beraun, 60 
miles W.S.W. of Prague. It is generally well-built, and has 
several handsome churches, a Rathhaus, theatre, and other 
public buildings. It is an active manufacturing town, having 
coal-mines and iron- works, breweries and chemical works, 
and carries on a very important trade. Four large yearly 
fairs are held here. Population, 23,681. 

Reichenberg, an important manufacturing centre, is situated 
on the Neisse, 56 miles N.N.E. of Prague. The streets 
are generally narrow and irregular, but it contains a number 
of good buildings. The great manufacture of the town and 
neighbourhood, for which they are widely known, is woollen 
stuffs, the annual value of which exceeds 1,200,000/. Cotton 
spinning is also largely carried on. Population, 22,394. 

Budweis, the capital of a circle of the same name, and the 
see of a bishop, is situated at the mouth of the Malsch in 
the Moldau, 75 miles S. of Prague. Among the principal 
buildings are the cathedral, bishop's palace, Rathhaus, and 
theatre. It has a diocesan school of theology, gymnasium, and 
other schools \ and a number of benevolent institutions. It 
carries on an active trade in coal, salt, and corn, the Moldau 
being navigable up to this point ; and it is also connected with 
Linz by railway. Population, 17,413. 

Eger, the capital of a circle of the same name, stands on a 
rocky eminence on the right bank of the Eger, 94 miles W. 
of Prague. It consists of a town proper and three suburbs, 
and has several handsome buildings, including a fine parish 
church and a spacious town hall. It was formerly strongly 

l 2 


fortified, and the ruins of a strong royal castle still exist. In 
the burgomaster's house, which is still to be seen, Wallenstein 
was assassinated on 25th February 1634. It is the centre of 
several railways, and carries on an active trade. The chief 
manufactures are woollen and cotton goods. Population, 


Moravia (Ger. Mahreri), Margraviate of, is bounded on the 
N. by Austrian and Prussian Silesia, E. by Austrian Silesia and 
Hungary, S. by Hungary and Lower Austria, and W. by Bo- 
hemia. It lies between lat. 48 40' and 50 15' N., and long. 
1 5 9' and 18 34' E., and contains an area of 8582 square miles, 
with 1,997,897 inhabitants. 

It is surrounded on three sides by mountains, having the 
Bohemia-Moravian mountains on the W., the Sudetes with the 
Gesenke and the Odergebirge on the N. and the Little Car- 
pathians and Beskides on the E. The highest mountains in 
Moravia are the Sudetes in the N., where some of the sum- 
mits rise to the height of more than 4500 feet. Of the Car- 
pathian chain on the E. some of the summits exceeds 4000 
feet, while of the Bohemia-Moravian mountains in the W., 
only a few exceed 2000 feet. The interior is generally hilly, 
sloping gradually towards the S. to the valley of the March, 
by which almost the whole surface of the province is drained. 
Moravia thus bears a considerable resemblance to the adjoin- 
ing province of Bohemia, except that the slopes of Bohemia 
are directed towards the N., while those of Moravia are 
towards the S. In this respect Moravia has the advantage 
of being exposed to the genial influences of the S., and shut 
in by high mountains on the N. The principal river is the 
March, which rises in the Spieglitzer Schneeberg, in the N., 
and flows in a winding course, from N. to S., through the 
province. Its principal affluent is the Thaya which flows 
through the southern portion of the territory. Several small 
streams in the N. flow into the Oder. Moravia has no lakes, 
but, on the other hand, contains numerous ponds. The climate 
is on the whole mild and genial. At Briinn, the capital, the 


average annual temperature is 46. 2 Fahr., being in July 63. 2 , 
and in January 27.2 . The average annual fall of rain is 19 

About 96 per cent, of the surface of Moravia is productive, 
and of this about 53 per cent, is arable (a greater proportion than 
is found in any of the other provinces), 27 per cent, woods, 
10.5 per cent, pastures, 9 per cent, gardens and meadows, and 
over 1 per cent, vineyards. Its chief wealth lies in its agricul- 
tural products. The principal grain crops are oats and rye, 
but barley and wheat are also largely grown. Although con- 
siderably behind in improved agricultural methods, the quan- 
tity of grain produced greatly exceeds the home consumption, 
and is largely exported. Potatoes, peas, beans, beet-root, cab- 
bages and other vegetables, are also largely grown. Flax and 
hemp are likewise produced. The most fertile tracts are in the 
centre, particularly the district of Hanna, S. of Olmiitz and the 
low-lying lands on the March and Thaya. Among fruits, the 
plum is largely grown, and the chestnut-tree flourishes in the 
S. The vine is mostly confined to the S., and the quantity of 
wine produced is not large, but some of it is of good quality. 
Moravia is particularly distinguished for its superior races of 
sheep, the wool being of the finest quality, and in great demand, 
Sheep's cheese too, and sheep's whey, are here articles of trade. 
Cattle and horses are also numerous, and of good qualities. 
Geese exist in great numbers. Bee culture is extensively car- 
ried on, and Moravian wax is noted for its excellence. The 
mining products are confined to coal, iron, graphite, and alum. 
None of the precious metals are found here, neither is salt 
found. Upwards of 15,000,000 cwt. of coal, however, is 
raised annually, and about 500,000 cwt. of wrought iron, and 
250,000 cwt. of cast iron, are annually obtained. 

As regards manufactures Moravia ranks high, being surpassed 
only by Bohemia and Lower Austria. The principal seat of 
manufacturing industry is the capital, Briinn. The chief manu- 
factures are woollen, linen, and cotton goods, and beet-root 
sugar. For woollen goods — whether we regard the quantity or 


varieties, from the coarsest to the finest — Moravia is unequalled 
by any other province. The annual value is estimated at over 
3,000,000/. The principal seats of this industry are Briinn, 
Iglau, Zwittau, and Namiest. The linen manufacture is carried 
on principally on the borders of Bohemia and Silesia, and 
between Wischau and Olmiitz, and is mostly a domestic 
industry. The cotton manufacture is carried on principally on 
the borders of Bohemia, between Zwittau and Schildberg, but 
likewise in other parts. The manufacture of sugar from beet- 
root is largely carried on, and is constantly extending. Among 
the other manufactures are iron and cast-iron wares and 
machinery, earthenware, glass, leather, paper, beer, brandy, 
chemicals, and tobacco. 

The trade of Moravia is very considerable. It exports its 
manufactured articles and its natural products, particularly 
grain, cattle, and wool; and it imports salt, colonial products, 
and raw materials for manufacture. Important markets are held 
at Briinn, which are among the most frequented in Austria. 
There is also a considerable through- traffic carried on, the 
province being traversed by several lines of railway and having 
also good roads. The March is navigable to Goding. 

Of the population about 72 per cent, are Slavs (Czechs, 
Slovaks and Wallachians), 25I per cent. Germans, and 2 \ per 
cent. Jews. About 95 per cent, are Roman Catholics, and 
3 per cent. Protestants, the rest being Jews. Of the adult 
population 48 per cent, are engaged in agriculture and the 
forests, 21 per cent. in. the manufactures, 2 \ per cent, in trade 
and commerce, and over 7^ per cent, in domestic service. 
Education is very generally diffused among the people. 

Brunn, the capital of Moravia, is situated on rising ground 
between the Schwarzawa and the Zwittawa, just before their 
confluence, 70 miles N. of Vienna, and 115 miles S.E. of Prague, 
with both of which cities it is connected by railway. To the 
west of the town stands the hill of Spielberg, on which is a 
castle of the same name, formerly used as a State prison, in 
which the Austrian Baron Trenck and Silvio Pellico were 


confined. The town is generally well built, and from its 
elevated position commands extensive views. It has 17 
churches, the principal of which are the recently restored 
Gothic church of St. Jacob, with a monument to Marshal von 
Souches, the defender of Briinn against the Swedes in 1645 ; 
the cathedral church of St. Peter ; the beautiful church of the 
Minorites; the church of the Capuchins, with the tomb of Baron 
Trenck; and the Gothic parish church erected in the 15th century. 
Among the principal of the other buildings are the bishop's 
palace, the Landhaus, Rathhaus, theatre, polytechnic, German 
gymnasium, and the government upper real school. Its educa- 
tional institutions are numerous, and include the polytechnic with 
35 teachers and 167 scholars, 2 gymnasia, 3 real schools, 3 
commercial schools, and several schools for special subjects. 
It has also a museum with several interesting collections, and a 
library of 26,000 volumes. It is the seat of the chief legal and 
administrative courts of the province, of a bishop, and a 
Protestant consistory, and contains a number of benevolent 
institutions. The old Jesuits' college is now a barracks. 

Briinn is one of the most important manufacturing towns of 
Austria, and a great seat of the woollen manufacture, whence it 
is sometimes termed the Austrian Leeds. The woollen goods 
annually produced are estimated at over 1,750,000/. Among 
its other manufactures are linen and cotton goods, leather, 
gloves, &c. It is likewise the centre of a very important trade. 
Of late years this town has been rapidly extending. In 1846, 
the population amounted to 45,189, in 1857 to 58,809, and in 
1869 to 73,771. 

fg/au, the town next in size to Briinn, is situated not far from 
the Bohemian frontier on the river Iglawa, here crossed by 
a stone bridge, 46 miles W.N.W. of Briinn. It consists of 
the town proper and three suburbs, and has a large public 
square and several handsome churches. The great staple 
manufacture is woollen cloth, which employs a great number of 
hands within the town and in its vicinity, and forms an im- 
portant article of trade. It also manufactures leather and 


tobacco, and four large annual fairs are held here. Population, 

Prossnitz, stands in a wide and pleasant valley on the brook 
Romza, in the fertile district of Hanna, 60 miles S.W. of 
Olmiitz. It consists of the town proper and four suburbs, and 
the inhabitants are principally engaged in the manufacture of 
woollen cloths ; also cotton goods, sugar, and leather. There are 
likewise a number of distilleries of brandy and rosoglio. Large 
markets are periodically held here for corn and cattle, this being 
the principal town of the Hanna district. Population, 15,787. 

OlmiltZj a strongly fortified town, formerly the capital of 
Moravia, is situated on the river March, 44 miles N. by E. of 
Briinn. It is surrounded by walls and ditches, and entered by 
four gates, and is reckoned one of the strongest places in the 
Austrian dominions. It was taken by the Swedes during the 
thirty years' war, but was besieged in vain for seven weeks by 
Frederick the Great in 1758. The cathedral is a fine Gothic 
edifice founded in the 14th century by Wenzel III. of Bohemia. 
The parish church of St. Maurice dates from the 15th century, 
and contains the largest organ in Moravia. Among the other 
principal buildings are the archbishop's palace, the Rathhaus, 
the old university buildings, and the theatre. The university 
was removed in 1855, but the library, which is here, contains 
5 5,000 volumes. Its chief manufacture is that of woollen 
stuffs, but linen and cotton goods, and leather are also manu- 
factured. Large cattle markets are held here periodically. 
Population, 15,229. 

Silesia (Ger. Schlesien), Duchy of, is the smallest of the pro- 
vinces of Austria, and is all that remains to it of the former 
duchy of Silesia, the greater portion of which was seized by 
Frederick the Great in 1740, and now forms part of Prussia. 
It is bounded on the N. by Prussian Silesia, E. by Galicia, S. 
by Hungary and Moravia, and W. by Moravia and Prussian 
Silesia. It lies between lat. 49 28' and 50 26' N., and long. 
16 54' and 19 1' E., and has an area of 1986 square miles. 
Population (1869), 511,581. 


The surface is for the most part mountainous, particularly in 
the W. portion, which is traversed by the Gesenke, a branch of 
the Sudetes. The smaller E. portion lies on the northern 
declivities of the Beskides. The Gesenke have usually broad 
bases and rounded summits, while the Beskides generally rise 
more abruptly and have sharper outlines. Several of the 
elevations attain the height of 4000 feet above the sea. The 
Jablunka Pass occurs here and affords communication between 
Silesia and Hungary. The mountains occur principally in the S., 
and the land declines towards the N. The lowest portion of the 
surface is at the outflow of the Oder, where it is 610 feet above 
the sea. There are no plains of any extent. The principal 
rivers by which the country is drained are the Oder and 
Vistula, both of which discharge themselves into the Baltic, but 
neither of which is here navigable. The chief affluents of the 
Oder are the Oppa and Olsa, and of the Vistula, the Biela. 

About 96 per cent, of the soil is productive, and of this 47 
per cent, is arable, 32 per cent, in wood, 10 per cent, in pasture, 
and 7 per cent, meadows and gardens. Though agriculture is 
pursued with diligence and with considerable skill, yet owing 
to the unfavourableness of the climate and backwardness of 
much of the soil, the quantity of grain produced is not equal to 
the wants of the people. The principal grain crops are oats and 
rye, but barley is also grown, and some wheat. Flax is grown 
in certain parts. The vine is not cultivated, and fruits are not 
abundant. Silesia, like Moravia, is distinguished for its fine races 
of sheep, and for the excellence of the wool which they produce. 
The principal mineral products are coal and iron. As regards 
coal it is one of the richest provinces of the Monarchy, yielding 
annually over 20,000,000 cwts. The amount of wrought and 
cast-iron annually produced, is about 120,000 cwt. 

As in Moravia the manufactures of Silesia are principally 
connected with the working up of its products of wool, flax, 
and iron. The chief centres of the woollen manufacture are 
Bielitz, Troppau, Wagstadt, and Jagerndorf, and the value is 
estimated at over 2,000,000/. annually. The linen manufacture 


is chiefly a domestic industry carried on by the peasants in the 
Sudetes. The chief seats of the cotton manufacture are 
around Freudenthal and Wigstadt. The principal centre of 
the iron manufacture is Ludwigsthal in the Sudetes. Among 
the other manufactures are beet-root sugar, leather, glass, beer, 
brandy, chemicals. The trade is chiefly confined to the im- 
portation of corn and raw materials for manufacture, and the 
exportation of manufactured articles. A considerable transit 
trade is likewise carried on. 

Of the population, 51 per cent are Germans, 20 per cent. 
Czechs, 28 percent. Poles, and 1 per cent. Jews. As to religion, 
84.5 per cent, are Roman Catholics, and 14 per cent. Protes- 
tants. Of the adult population, 43 per cent, are engaged in 
agriculture and the forests, 25.5 per cent, in the manufactures, 
2 per cent, in trade and commerce, and 5.5 per cent, in domestic 
service. The Silesians are a peaceful, unostentatious, con- 
tented people, distinguished by industry and frugality. 

Troppau, the capital of Silesia, is pleasantly situated on the 
right bank of the river Oppa, near the borders of Prussia, and 
82 miles N. by E. of Briinn. It has two handsome squares, 
a fine Gothic parish church built of basalt, a castle, and a 
tasteful city tower. There are a number of educational and 
benevolent institutions, a museum with several excellent col- 
lections of objects, and a library of 36,000 volumes. The 
manufacture of woollen stuffs is actively carried on, also those 
of sugar, paper, rosoglio, &c. Population, 16,608. 

Galicia (Ger. Galizieii) comprises the kingdom of Galicia 
and Lodomeria, with the Grand Duchy of Cracow, and 
the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator. This territory formerly 
formed part of the kingdom of Poland, and came to Austria 
by the partitions of 1772 and 1795, while the Grand Duchy 
of Cracow was annexed in 1846. It is bounded on the 
N. by Russian Poland, E. by Russia and Bukowina, S. by 
Hungary, and W. by Austrian and Prussian Silesia. It lies 
between lat. 48 and 50 40' N. and long. 19 1 1', and 2 6° 31' E., 
and has an area of 30,306 square miles, with a population 


in 1869 of 5,418,016, being the most extensive and having the 
largest population of the provinces of Austria Proper. 

The whole S. border of Galicia is traversed by the Car- 
pathians which with their branches occupy about one-third of the 
territory. The Beskides enter the country from Silesia and 
spread themselves out between the Sola and theSkava. They 
are separated from the Central Carpathians by the valley of 
the Dunajec. A small portion of the Tatra range belongs to 
Galicia, its highest summit here being about 7800 feet. E. of 
the Poprad begins the Carpathian Waldgebirge, a steep pre- 
cipitous mountain chain, with some cross valleys and moun- 
tain passes, which extends through the rest of the province. 
Between the Carpathians and the Podolian Highland (an un- 
dulating plateau in the neighbourhood of Lemberg) rise the 
Mazurian hills, which cover the territory from the declivities 
of the Beskides at Bochnia to the Dniester. The Tarno- 
witzer or Polish Plain, only extends into Galicia, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cracow. Beyond the Dniester and the Podolian 
Highland stretches the Plain of Galicia forming part of the 
Great Plain of N.E. Europe. Galicia is a well- watered coun- 
try. The principal streams are the Vistula, which receives 
the rivers of W. Galicia, and empties itself into the Baltic, and 
the Dniester which conveys the waters of E. Galicia, into the 
Black Sea. The chief affluents of the Vistula are the Skava, Sola, 
Dunajec (with its affluent the Poprad), Wisloka, San, and Bug ; 
and of the Dniester, the Stry, Lomnica, Sered, and Podhorze. 
The Pruth, an affluent of the Danube is an insignificant stream 
in Galicia. There are no lakes of any size, but numerous 
small mountain lakes among the Carpathians. There are also 
numerous ponds abounding in fish. Extensive swamps occur in 
the upper courses of the San and the Dniester. The climate is 
severe, particularly in the S., and it also presents the greatest 
extremes of heat and cold. The winters are long and severe, 
and the summers short but very warm. At Cracow, the 
average annual temperature is 45. 6°, being for January, 24. 8°, 
and for July 61.7 . 


The principal pursuit of the inhabitants is agriculture. 
About 87 per cent, of the surface is productive, and of this 
47 per cent, is arable, 15 per cent, meadows and gardens, 9.5 
per cent, pasture-land, and 29 per cent, forests. The soil is 
in general favourable for agriculture, particularly on the plains 
in the N. and especially the N.E. The principal grain-crops 
are oats, barley, and rye, also buckwheat. The produce varies 
greatly, in bad years not being equal to the home consumption, 
and in good years affording a large surplus. Much of this, 
owing to distance from markets and bad means of communica- 
tion, is used in the manufacture of spirits. In the N.E., wheat, 
maize, tobacco, and melons, are produced, but the vine fails. 
Flax and hemp are largely grown, and some hops. The Car- 
pathians are rich in timber, and quantities of it are sent down 
the Vistula and Dniester, to Danzig and Odessa. The great 
extent of pasture-land is favourable to cattle-rearing, and 
young cattle are brought from Russia and Moldavia, to be 
fattened here, and then sent westward. The rearing of sheep 
is also actively carried on. The horses are numerous, and 
though small, are strong and hardy. The most important 
mineral product of Galicia is salt, of which it possesses almost 
inexhaustible stores, extending along the outer chain of the 
Carpathians from Wieliczka to Bukowina. It is found in great 
abundance at Wieliczka in the W. and Solotwina and Delatyn 
in the E. In the W. about 1,400,000 cwt. of rock salt are 
annually obtained, and in the E. about 600,000 cwt. of salt 
are made from brine. Galicia furnishes about 40 per cent, of 
the whole salt obtained in the Monarchy. After salt is coal, 
which is obtained in the district of Cracow and yields annually 
about 3,350,000 cwt. Among the other mineral products are 
iron, lead, zinc, sulphur, petroleum, chalk, marble, alabaster, &c. 

The linen manufacture is extensively carried on, favoured 
by the abundance of flax and hemp. In the W. not only the 
ordinary kinds of linen are made, but also damasks and other 
finer sorts. In the E. in general only the ordinary kinds are 
made. In the country parts the peasantry, during the winter 


season, mostly employ themselves in weaving. Next to linen 
comes the manufacture of brandy, which, although less largely 
carried on now than formerly, is still an extensive industry. 
The leather manufacture is also important, and is extensively 
carried on. The manufacture of beet-root sugar is likewise an 
important industry, and some of the works here are among the 
largest in the Monarchy. Among the other manufactures are 
woollen cloth (on the borders of Silesia), cotton goods, glass, 
paper, earthenware, hardware, beer, potash, &c. 

The trade of Galicia is mostly in the hands of the Jews. 
The exports are chiefly the raw products of the country, — corn, 
salt, cattle, wood, also textile fabrics ; the imports chiefly 
colonial goods and manufactured articles. A considerable 
transit trade is also carried on through it, between Russia 
on the one side, and the western provinces of Austria on 
the other, — in cattle, skins, wool, tallow, &c, from Russia, 
and manufactured articles from Austria. A chief market for 
exports and imports is the town of Brody. Galicia is still 
very deficient in means of communication, the roads are not 
many, the railways are few, and the only navigable river of 
consequence is the Vistula. 

The population of Galicia is divided into two principal races, 
the Poles and the Ruthenians, the former being most nume- 
rous in the W. portion, the latter in the E. In W. Galicia 
the Poles number 86 per cent, of the population, the Ruthe- 
nians 4, Germans 3, and Jews 7 ; while in E. Galicia the 
Ruthenians are 67 per cent., Poles 20, Germans 2, and Jews 
11. In the entire province the Ruthenians reckon 45 per 
cent., and the Poles 43 per cent. In W. Galicia 89 per cent., 
and in E. Galicia only 21.5 per cent, are Roman Catholics, 
while in W. Galicia only 4 per cent., and in E. Galicia 66.5 
per cent, are Greek Catholics. In Lemberg the Jews form four- 
tenths of the population, and in Cracow not much less, while in 
other parts the proportion varies from 5 to 15 per cent. Edu- 
cation is very much neglected here, and of the children of 
school age only 26.3 per cent, are at school. 


Lemberg, the capital of Galicia, is situated in a narrow valley 
on the Peltow, a small tributary of the Bug, 368 miles E.N.E. 
of Vienna, and 184 E. of Cracow. It was founded by Leo, 
prince of Halicz in 1259, and was formerly an important fort- 
ress, but its fortifications have been destroyed, and their site 
laid out in public walks. The town itself is small, containing 
only about 300 houses, but it is surrounded by 7 suburbs, most, 
if not all, of which are larger than itself. In the town the 
streets are generally narrow and irregular, but the suburbs are 
well laid out and contain many elegant streets. It is the seat 
of the higher courts and government offices of the province, 
and also of 3 archbishops, a Roman Catholic, a Greek Catholic, 
and an Armenian Catholic. Among the principal buildings 
are the Dominican Church, built on the model of St. Peter's at 
Rome, and containing a monument to the Countess Borkowska, 
by Thorwaldsen ; the Greek Catholic Metropolitan Church of 
St. George, a magnificent building in the Italian style; the 
Latin Cathedral, a Gothic structure, erected in 1344; the New 
Jewish Synagogue, a handsome edifice, of large size, erected 
in 1847 i tne new Rathhaus, a very elegant building, with a 
lofty tower ; the palace of the Roman Catholic Archbishop ; 
the university buildings; and the theatre built by Count 
Skarbek. The university was founded here by the Emperor 
Joseph II. in 1784, and reorganized by Francis I. in 181 7. 
In 1876 it had 49 professors and teachers, and 918 students. 
It has a library of 55,000 volumes, botanic garden, museum, 
&c. The Polytechnic Institute has 29 teachers, and 260 
scholars. The Ossilinski National Museum contains valuable 
collections of objects, and a library of 62,000 volumes. Lem- 
berg is the principal manufacturing and commercial town in 
the province. Its moie important manufactures are woollen 
and cotton stuffs, leather, hardware, rosoglio, vinegar, and 
candles ; and in the vicinity is a large government tobacco 
factory. A great part of the trade of the province centres 
here, but much of it is merely transit, and it is principally 
in the hands of Jews. Three annual fairs held here are 


much frequented. Lemberg has risen into importance chiefly 
since it came into the hands of Austria. In 1772 the popu- 
lation little exceeded 20,000, in 1808 it had risen to 41,493, 
and in 1869 ft was 87,109. 

Cracow (Ger. Krakau), formerly the coronation city, and a 
frequent residence of the Polish kings, afterwards capital of 
the republic of the same name, and now the chief town of W. 
Galicia, is pleasantly situated in a fertile valley, on the left 
bank of the Vistula, and connected with the opposite bank 
by the Francis- Joseph Bridge, 266 miles N.N.E. of Vienna. 
It has lately been strongly fortified, being surrounded by 
ramparts and ditches, and protected by detached forts on the 
neighbouring heights. It contains numerous interesting build- 
ings, among which are the former residence castle of the 
Polish kings, erected in the 14th century, but several times 
restored, and now used as a barracks and military hospital ; 
the magnificent cathedral, containing numerous beautiful 
monuments ; the Gothic church of the Virgin Mary, founded in 
1226 ; the church of St. Peter, built after the model of that 
at Rome ; the church of St. Anne, with a monument to the 
Astronomer Copernicus ; the Rathhaus ; university buildings ; 
government offices, &c. The university was founded in 1549, 
and in 1876 had 75 professors and teachers, and 587 students. 
It has a library of 140,000 volumes, a botanic garden, ob- 
servatory, &c. Cracow has also a polytechnic academy, and 
a number of other educational, as well as scientific and bene- 
volent institutions, and is the seat of a bishop. The principal 
manufactures are cloth and leather ; and a very large trade 
is carried on in corn, wood, salt, wine, &c. Two large annual 
fairs are held here, and the neighbourhood is very interesting. 
Population, 49,835. 

Brody, a free commercial town, is situated near the borders 
of Russia, 52 miles E.N.E. of Lemberg. The town is ill-built 
and dirty, and the houses mostly of wood. It has a castle, 
one Roman Catholic and two Greek churches, three synagogues, 
and a theatre. Since 1779 it has enjoyed the privilege of being 


a free commercial town, but a law has just passed (1879) by 
which it is to be brought within the customs limits. The 
manufactures are chiefly linen and leather ; and it carries on a 
very extensive transit trade with Russia, Moldavia, Wallachia, 
and Turkey, on the one side, and Austria and Germany on 
the other. Population 18,733, more than three-fourths of whom 
are Jews, whence it is sometimes called the German Jerusalem. 

Bukowina, Duchy of, formerly the most S.E. portion of 
Galicia, but now a separate province of Austria, is bounded 
on the N. by Galicia, E. by Russia and Moldavia, S. by Mol- 
davia and Transylvania, and W. by Transylvania, Hungary, 
and Galicia. It lies between lat. 47 14' and 48 40' N., and 
long. 24 34' and 2 6° 22' E., having an area of 4034 square 
miles, and (in 1869) 511,964 inhabitants. 

The territory of Bukowina is for the most part mountainous. 
The W. portion is traversed by the Carpathians, which send 
their branches eastward, between the courses of the principal 
rivers, where they form undulating plateaus. The highest 
summits are in the adjacent lands, but here some of the peaks 
rise to the height of 6000 feet. There are no plains of great 
extent, but some of the river valleys are of considerable 
size. The lowest land is on the Dniester and Pruth. The 
country is for the most part densely wooded, and the river 
valleys are in many parts covered with swamps. The most 
important river is the Dniester, which forms the boundary on 
the N. After it is the Pruth, and then the Sereth, which 
after leaving the province receives the Suczawa, Moldawa, and 
the golden Bistritz, all rivers of Bukowina. In summer they 
usually contain little water, but in spring or after much rain 
they frequently overflow their banks, and cause much damage. 
The climate is milder than in Galicia, but is still severe, 
though salubrious. At Czernowitz, the capital, the average 
annual temperature is 45. 2 , being for January 24. 8°, and for 
July 64 . In summer violent thunder-storms and heavy rains 
are common, but autumn is usually dry and pleasant. 

About 1 1.5 per cent, of the land is unproductive, 39.7 in 


woods and forests, 24.9 arable, 11.7 meadows and gardens, 
and 12.2 pastures. The soil is in general good, particularly in 
the valley of the Suczawa, in the Sereth plain, and in the low- 
lying parts between the Pruth and the Dniester, but in gene- 
ral there is much room for improvement in the methods of 
cultivation. The principal grain crop is maize, which consti- 
tutes an important article of food. Besides this, oats, rye, 
wheat, buckwheat, potatoes, and some flax and hemp are 
grown. The rearing of cattle and sheep is extensively car- 
ried on, and at Radautz is a government military stud. The 
principal mineral products are iron, copper, and salt. Gold 
is found in the sands of the Bistritz, and silver and lead 
were formerly obtained. The manufactures are all on a limited 
scale, and are chiefly for the supply of the home demand. 
They include woollen and linen goods, wooden iron and 
copper wares, machines, brandy, beer, paper, glass, and leather. 
A considerable trade is carried on with Moldavia and Bess- 
arabia, and a still more important transit trade favoured by 
the railway which passes through the country from Lemberg, 
through Czernowitz, to Jassy and Odessa. The population is 
a very mixed one. Exclusive of the gipsies, who are pretty 
numerous, there are reckoned 8 distinct nationalities, and as 
many religions. About 41 per cent, are Ruthenians, 38 per 
cent. Roumanians, 8 per cent. Germans, 1 percent. Poles, 1.7 
per cent. Magyars, 9.5 per cent. Jews, .5 per cent. Armenians, 
and less than .5 per cent. Czechs. As to religion, 10.5 per 
cent, are Roman Catholics, 3.2 Greek Catholics, 73 per cent. 
Oriental Greeks, 2.2 per cent. Protestants, .5 per cent. Arme- 
nians, and 9.5 Jews. No fewer than 78.5 per cent, of the adult 
population are engaged in agriculture and the forests, 5.5 per 
cent, in manufacturing and industrial pursuits, 2.2 per cent, in 
trade and commerce, and 3 per cent, in domestic service. 

Czernowitz, the capital of Bukowina, is pleasantly situated on 
an elevation on the right bank of the Pruth, which is here crossed 
by a bridge, 472 feet long, 165 miles S. by E. of Lemberg. 
It consists of the city proper and four suburbs, and is the seat of 



an Oriental Greek archbishop, and the chief courts of the pro- 
vince. The principal buildings are the new Greek cathedral, 
and the archiepiscopal palace. In 1875 a new university 
was established here which in 1876 had 29 professors and 
teachers ; and 209 students. The theological faculty is for 
the Oriental Greek church. There are likewise a gymnasium, 
real school, and other educational institutions. The manufac- 
tures are not considerable, but it carries on a large trade. 
Population, 33,884. 

Dalmatia (Ger. Dalmatien), Kingdom of, is the most southern 
province of Austria, lying between 42 10' and 44 10' N. lat. 
and 1 4 46' and 18 59' E. long. It extends along the E. 
shore of the Adriatic, and is about 345 miles in length, while 
its greatest breadth does not exceed 45 miles. It is bounded 
on the N. by Croatia, E. by Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Monte- 
negro, S. by Turkish Albania, and W. by the Adriatic. Area 
(including the adjacent islands), 4938 square miles. Popula- 
tion (1869), 442,796. 

The surface is for the most part mountainous or hilly. A 
mountain range in the N. separates it from Croatia, and rises 
to the height of 5700 feet. Along the E. border running 
parallel with the coast are the Dinaric Alps, of which Mount 
Dinara is 5956 feet high. The highest mountain in the country 
however, is Orien in the neighbourhood of the bay of Cattaro, 
6226 feet high. The mountains are for the most part composed 
of limestone, and present a bleak and barren aspect. Many 
other parts of the country are in like manner rugged and barren, 
being of a similar nature to the Karst country. The coast is 
steep and rocky, and is intersected by numerous bays forming 
excellent havens. The islands present the same leading fea- 
tures as the mainland. The rivers are few in number, have 
short courses, are rapid, and form frequent waterfalls. The 
principal are the Zermagna, Kerka, Cettina, and Narenta. 
The lakes are numerous, but with the exception of lake Vrana 
which is near the coast and whose waters are brackish, they 
are mostly dry in summer. There are also numerous swamps 


and marshes. The climate of Dalmatia is in general warmer 
than that of any other part of the Monarchy, and except 
in the neighbourhood of the swamps it is salubrious and 
favourable to long life, the heat being tempered by the mild 
sea breezes. The average annual temperature at Zara is 55.5 , 
being in January 41.7 and in July 70 . The African sirocco 
however, makes itself occasionally felt here. The people are 
principally engaged in agriculture, cattle-rearing, fishing, and 
navigation. Only about 3.6 per cent, of the land is 
reckoned as unproductive, but much of the pasture-land, 
which amounts to 56.5 per cent, is little better than waste. 
The arable land is to. 9 per cent., vineyards 5.4, gar- 
dens and meadows 1, and woods and forests 22.6 per 
cent. Agriculture is in a very backward state, and the 
amount of grain produced is not equal to the home consump- 
tion. The chief grain-crops are barley and maize, but wheat, 
oats, and rye, are also grown. About 16,000,000 gallons of 
wine are annually produced, and a considerable quantity of 
olive oil. The principal fruits are apples, pears, plums, peaches, 
apricots, figs, almonds, lemons, oranges, pomegranates. The 
cattle and sheep are numerous but of inferior qualities, and 
none of the other provinces have so many goats. The rearing 
of the silkworm has of late years been making rapid progress, 
favoured by the government causing to be distributed, free, 
annually, hundreds of thousands of mulberry-trees. Fish are 
numerous on the coast, and afford employment to many of 
the inhabitants. The mineral products of Dalmatia are unim- 
portant. The principal are brown coal and asphalt, but neither 
in large quantities. In some places, however, a considerable 
quantity of salt is obtained by evaporation from sea-water, 
amounting annually to about 100,000 cwts. 

The manufactures are few and unimportant. The most 
important is the distillation of spirits and liqueurs, of which 
the most famous is Maraschino. Manufactures of coarse 
woollen stuffs, leather, and soap, are also carried on. In 
several of the ports ship and boat-building is actively pursued. 

M 2 


The trade of Dalmatia is very considerable, the chief exports 
being olive oil, wine, figs, liqueurs, raw hides, wool, fish, and 
sea salt ; and the imports corn, flour, various kinds of woven 
and manufactured goods, tobacco, cattle, &c. In 1876 
the exports amounted to 816,000/., and the imports to 
1,377,200/. A large overland trade is carried on with Bosnia, 
Herzegovina, Montenegro, &c. At present Dalmatia forms a 
customs district by itself, but it is about to be included within 
the general customs limits. 

Of the population 89 per cent, are Morlaks — a Servian race 
inhabiting the interior— and 10.5 per cent. Italians, living on the 
coast, the rest being Albanians and Jews. About 82 per cent, 
are Roman Catholics, and 17.7 per cent, belonging to the 
Oriental Greek Church. Of the adult population 50 per cent, 
are employed in connexion with the land, 3.7 in the manu- 
factures, 2.5 per cent, in trade and navigation, and 7.5 per cent, 
in domestic service. The Dalmatians are a tall and handsome 
race of men, bold and brave as seamen and soldiers, hospitable 
to strangers, and great lovers of freedom. They are however 
also said to be lazy, dissipated, deceitful, addicted to robbery. 

Zara, the capital of Dalmatia, is situated on a long narrow 
tongue of land, so that it is surrounded on three sides by the 
sea, and on the E. side, where it is connected with the land, 
a canal has been cut, and thus it actually stands upon an 
island. It is 129 miles S.S.E. of Trieste, and prior to 1873 
was strongly fortified. Of the gates, the sea-gate has been 
constructed out of the remains of an ancient Roman triumphal 
arch, and the land-gate is adorned with columns. The 
principal streets are wide and regular, but the others are 
mostly narrow, unpaved, and dirty. The cathedral is a hand- 
some building in the Byzantine style, erected in the beginning 
of the thirteenth century. Zara is the seat of the principal 
courts of the province, of a Roman Catholic archbishop, and 
a Greek bishop. It has a Roman Catholic theological 
seminary, gymnasium, real school, hospital, theatre, people's 
garden, &c. It is, however, ill-supplied with water. The 


manufactures are unimportant, but there are several distilleries 
producing large quantities of Maraschino. A considerable 
trade is carried on, and fishing is actively pursued. The 
harbour on the N.E. of the town is spacious and secure, able 
to receive ships of war of moderate size. In 1877, 1324 ships 
of 200,838 tons entered, and 1316 ships of 200,734 tons left 
the harbour. Population, 20,849. 

Spalato is situated on a small peninsula, on the N.E. side of 
the strait which seperates the Islands of Solta and Brazza from 
the mainland, 82 miles S.E. of Zara. It consists of an old and 
new town and several suburbs. The old town occupies the place 
of the vast palace built for himself by the Emperor Diocletian 
after he resigned the reins of government, a.d. 304, It was 
quadrangular in form, covering nearly eight acres, and con- 
tained within its precints temples, theatres, and other edifices. 
When the neighbouring town of Salona, then large and 
populous, was destroyed by the Avars in 640, the inhabitants 
fled for refuge into the palace, and settled there, forming a 
small town. Hence the name Palatium, afterwards Spalatium, 
now Spalato, Considerable portions of the old palace still 
exist. The temple of Jupiter has been turned into a cathedral, 
and that of ^Esculapius is now the baptistery of St. John. It 
has a museum of antiquities, and the neighbourhoo d is rich in 
Roman remains. A considerable trade is carried on both by 
sea and land, in corn, wine, oil, fruit, cattle, &c. The harbour 
is safe and commodious. The principal manufactures are 
woollen cloth, leather, silk, candles and rosoglio. Population, 

Sebenico is situated on a bay of the same name, at the mouth 
of the Kerka, 42 miles S E. of Zara. It is built in the 
form of an amphitheatre, on the side of a hill, and its principal 
building is the cathedral, a Byzantine Gothic edifice of the 
fifteenth century, the interior of which is much admired. 
Excellent wine is produced in the neighbourhood, and the 
inhabitants are actively employed in fishing. A considerable 
trade is carried on. Population, 15,115. 


jRagusa, formerly the capital of a small republic of the same 
name, is picturesquely situated at the foot and on the steep 
slopes of Mount Sergia, on a peninsula 216 miles S.E. of 
Zara. It is surrounded by old walls with towers and bastions, 
and is protected by several forts. The streets are mostly very 
narrow, but the houses are substantially built of stone. 
Among the principal buildings are the government palace, 
custom-house, cathedral, and church of the Jesuits. The 
harbour at the town is very small, the proper harbour, which is 
excellent, being at Gravosa, where an important trade in 
wine, oil, silk, &c, is carried on. The manufactures are incon- 
siderable, being chiefly silk and woollen goods and leather. 
The town has repeatedly suffered from earthquakes, particularly 
in 1667, when 5000 persons are said to have lost their lives, 
and a great part of the town was reduced to ruins. Ragusa 
was originally founded in the middle of the seventh century by 
fugitives from the neighbouring Epidaurus or old Ragusa, when 
that city was destroyed by the Slavonians. In 1358 it was the 
capital of a small republic under the protection of Hungary. 
It was taken possession of by Napoleon in 1806, and incor- 
porated in the Kingdom of Illyria in 18 n. In 18 14 it became 
a part of Austria. Population, 8678. 

Hungary (Ger. Ungarn ; Magyar, Magyar- Orszag), 
Kingdom of, is bounded on the N. by Silesia and Galicia, 
E. by Bukowina and Transylvania, S. by Servia, Slavonia, and 
Croatia, and W. by Styria, Lower Austria, and Moravia. It lies 
between 44 41' and 49 N. lat, and 16 20' and 25 8' E. long. ; 
has an area of 87,044 square miles, and a population (in 1869) 
of 11,117,623. 

The surface forms part of the great basin of the Middle 
Danube, and is partly mountainous, partly flat territory. The 
most mountainous part is Northern Hungary. The Carpathians 
commence on the Danube near the mouth of the March, and 
describe a great curve along the borders of Hungary, so as to 
bound it on the N.W., N., and N.E. On entering Transylvania 
they form several branches, one of which bounds Hungary on 


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/'«i > <? 1 66. 


the E., and overruns that part of the country lying E. of the 
Theiss. In like manner, in other parts, branches of the 
Carpathians spread themselves over the country lying adjacent 
to the main chain. The mountains, which are rich in ores 
of all kinds, and in rock salt, are well wooded and enclose 
numerous beautiful fertile and vine-growing valleys. In the 
W. of Hungary prolongations of the Noric and Carnic Alps 
enter the country and extend as far as the Danube, forming 
the Leithagebirge, Bakony Forest, Vertesgebirge, &c. Few of 
the elevations here rise to the height of more than 2000 feet ; 
S. of this, beyond the Platten lake, and between the Drave 
and the Szarviz, is a hilly country, which attains its highest 
elevation in the Funfkirchen group (1300 feet), partly richly 
wooded, partly occupied by vineyards and fertile fields, inter- 
persed with numerous towns and villages. 

The interior of the country is for the most part composed of 
extensive plains, of which the principal are the Little or Upper 
and the Great or Lower Hungarian Plains. The Little 
Hungarian Plain extends on both sides of the Danube, between 
Pressburg and Komorn, having an area of about 3400 square 
miles, and a general elevation of 360 feet. It is surrounded 
on all sides by mountains, and is, no doubt, the bed of an 
ancient lake, the remains of which we find in the Neusiedier 
lake, with its marshy borders. The plain is, for the most part, 
very fertile, particularly the island of Schiitt, in the Danube, 
which is sometimes called the " Golden Garden of Hungary. " 
To the N. and W. there also extend flat and hilly tracts pre- 
senting the most varied and fertile aspect — cultivated fields 
interspersed with vineyards, gardens, and orchards. These 
tracts extend along the river valleys, even to the Carpathians, 
the Alps, and the Bakony Forest. Very different from this 
is the great Hungarian Plain, which lies to the E., extending 
from the Bakony Forest on the W., to Transylvania on the 
E., and from the Carpathians on the N. to the Danube on the 
S. It has an area of about 38,000 square miles, and a general 
elevation of from 150 to 200 feet, rising in some parts to 

1 68 A U STRIA -HUNG A R Y. 

400 or 500 feet above the sea. This too is no doubt the bed 
of an ancient lake. It is traversed by the rivers Danube and 
Theiss, the former flowing very slowly and forming numerous 
islands, the latter pursuing a very winding course, and both 
having on their banks numerous swamps and marshes. Much 
of this region is a dry and arid desert, covered with drifting 
sand ; in other parts are wide expanses of moor and moss ; yet 
there are not wanting in parts fertile fields and good pasture- 
land. It is remarkably destitute of trees and stones. 

The principal rivers of Hungary are the Danube and Theiss. 
The former receives from the left, the March, Waag, Gran, 
Eipel, Theiss and Temes ; and from the right the Leitha, Raab, 
Szarviz, and Drave. The Theiss receives from the right the 
Borzova, Hernad, Eger, and Zagyva ; and from the left the 
Szamos, Koros and Maros. The more important of these 
rivers have been already described. The principal lakes are 
the Balaton or Platten, and the Neusiedler Lake already 
noticed. The mineral springs are numerous, some being hot, 
others endowed with important medicinal qualities. Among 
the best known and most frequented, are those at Teplitz 
near Trentschin, Fiired, Bartfeld, Parad, Buda, Grosswardein 
and Mehadia. 

The climate varies greatly in different parts of the country. 
In the N. among the Carpathians, the winter is long and cold, 
snow beginning to fall in September, and continuing to May 
or June \ whereas in the S. the trees blossom as early as March, 
and in June the heat becomes oppressive, reaching its culmi- 
nating point in July. At Buda, near the centre of the king- 
dom, the average annual temperature is 49. 4 Fahr., being for 
January 29.8 , and for July 67.5°. The annual rainfall here is 
about 16 inches, but in some parts it exceeds 30 inches. In 
general the climate is subject to great and sudden changes, the 
thermometer sometimes rising or falling 30 or 40 ° in two or 
three hours. 

The unproductive land of Hungary amounts to about 16 per 
cent, of the whole. Of the productive land 40.5 per cent, is 


arable, 27 per cent, woods and forests, 17 per cent, pasture- 
land, 14 per cent, meadows and gardens, and about 1.6 vine- 
yards. Agriculture has made great improvements of late 
years, and is now much more carefully prosecuted than formerly, 
especially on the large farms. The principal corn-producing 
districts are in the two plains, particularly the part of the great 
plain lying beyond the Theiss, and the Banat, which produces 
the finest wheat in the country. In some parts, however, the 
crops frequently suffer from drifting sand and the overflowing 
of the rivers. The principal grain crops are wheat, rye, maize, 
oats and barley. Rye is everywhere cultivated, especially in 
the N. by the Slavs, and maize especially in the E. and S. 
The quantity of grain annually produced is estimated at more 
than 200,000,000 bushels, which affords a considerable amount 
for exportation, after meeting the home wants. Among the 
other products, tobacco occupies an important place, and much 
of it is of superior quality. It is estimated that about 1,000,000 
cwt. are annually produced. Hemp of good quality and in 
large quantity is grown in the S. Flax is also grown, but not 
to the same extent. The hops grown do not come up to the 
home demand for that article. The culture of rape-seed and 
beet-root is extending. The quantity of fruit produced, although 
large, is not equal to what might be expected, looking at the 
favourable conditions of soil and climate. The principal fruits 
are apples, pears, and cherries in the N., and figs, almonds, 
and olives in the S. Plums, apricots, walnuts, and chestnuts 
are generally grown. The country is particularly noted for its 
melons, which are extensively cultivated. 

Hungary in proportion to its extent is a great wine produc- 
ing country, and much of it is of very superior quality. The 
amount annually produced is estimated at over 220,000,000 
gallons ; and among the best sorts are Tokay, Menescher, 
Ruster, Schomlauer, Szexarder, Ofner, Visontaer, &c. Ac- 
cording to the last census, Hungary contained 1,700,000 horses, 
smallindeed, but active and hardy; 3,600,000 cattle; 12,500,000 
sheep; and 3,200,000 swine; besides~goats, asses, and mules. 


The sheep yield 235,000 cwt. of wool, besides which the silk- 
worm produces 6400 cwt. of cocoons, and bees about 196,000 
cwt. of honey and wax. Many of the rivers and lakes afford 
excellent fishing, and good shooting is also to be had. 

Hungary is particularly rich in minerals of various kinds, 
being in this respect, one of the most favoured countries in 
Europe. Gold and silver ores are obtained chiefly at Schem- 
nitz, Kremnitz, and Schmollnitz in the W. Carpathians, 
and Nagy-Banya and Oravicza (in the Banat) in the E. and 
S. Carpathians. About 21,862 oz. of gold, and 964,500 oz. of 
silver are annually obtained from the mines, besides small 
quantities of gold obtained from the sand of certain rivers by 
washing. The principal copper-mines are in the neighbour- 
hood of Schmollnitz, and the quantity annually obtained exceeds 
40,000 cwt. Upper Hungary is rich in iron, which ranks next 
in quality to that of Styria, It is principally obtained in the 
countries of Sohl, Gomor and Zips ; and the annual amount is 
1,700,000 cwt. of wrought, and 670,000 cwt. of cast iron. In 
1855 the quantity of coal raised was 3,500,000 cwt., and it now 
exceeds 14,000,000 cwt. The principal coal-mines are at 
Fiinfkirchen and Oravicza. Salt is obtained in the Marmaros to 
the amount of about 1,000,000 cwt. annually. Among the other 
metals and minerals are lead, cobalt, nickel, soda, saltpetre, 
alum, Glauber salts, &c. Various kinds of precious stones are 
found, the opals (in Saroser county) being especially famous. 

Hungary does not rank high as a manufacturing country. 
Indeed in this respect it is far behind, although of late years 
it has been making considerable advances, and will no doubt 
continue to do so, for it enjoys many facilities for carrying on 
flourishing manufactures. At present the manufactures do not 
meet the wants of the people. The principal seats are in the 
W. and N., and industry is more directed to the preparation 
of the raw materials than to the production of finished articles. 
The most extended industry is the preparation of leather. The 
linen industry has its chief seat among the Slovaks of Upper 
Hungary, but it is only on the W. borders that good fabrics 


are made. The woollen manufacture, notwithstanding the 
quantity and excellence of the wool produced is of small extent. 
The iron manufacture flourishes chiefly in N. Hungary and is 
rapidly progressing. Among the other manufactures the chief 
are paper, glass, porcelain, beet-root sugar, brandy, beer, 
tobacco, and chemicals. 

The external as well as the internal trade of Hungary is very 
considerable. The surplus products of the country, particularly 
corn, wine, wool, and cattle, are exported, while various sorts 
of manufactured goods and colonial products are imported. 
The external trade has very much increased since the removal 
of the customs restrictions by which it was hampered, and the 
improved means of communication. At the end of 1876, 
Hungary (including Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavonia) had 
4142 miles of railway in operation, and 87 miles in course of 
construction. The navigable length of the rivers and canals 
was 1876 miles, and there were 14,000 miles of made roads. 
Still the trade of Hungary suffers much from want of more 
adequate means of communication, and with the extension of 
these the trade will be improved. At present the principal 
trade of the country is carried on at the numerous fairs, which 
are from time to time held in different parts of the country. 
There are more than 900 places where these fairs are held, but 
the most important are in Pesth, Debeczin, Arad and Szegedin. 
Many of these fairs are for special objects, as horses, cattle, 
wool, granite, &c. 

Of the population 43 per cent, are Magyars 16 \ Slovaks, 
13 Germans, nf Roumanians, 6\ Serbians, 4 \ Ruthenians, 
and 4! Jews. The remainder are made up of various nation- 
alities, Slovens, Croatians, Gipsies, &c. As regards religion 
53 percent, are Roman Catholics, 15.4 Calvinists, 7.8 Lutherans, 
10 Oriental Greeks, 8.8 Greek Catholics, and 4 Jews. The 
rest are Armenians, Unitarians, &c. Of the adult population 
§ are employed in agriculture, the forests and the mines, 
scarcely T V in manufacturing industry, 2 per cent, in trade and 
commerce, and over 17! in domestic service. 


The history of the country begins with its conquest by the 
Magyars in the last decade of the ninth century. At that time 
it was inhabited chiefly by Slavonians, Bulgarians, and Walla- 
chians under petty princes. The leader of the Magyars was 
Duke Arpad, and his descendants ruled the country for several 
centuries. One of the most renowned of these was Duke 
Stephen, who in iooo assumed the title of king, and is regarded 
as the founder of the political and administrative institutions, and 
the organization of the country. One of his successors, Andrew 
II. , engaged in a contest with his nobles, which ended in his 
granting in 1222 the Aurea Bulla, or Golden Bull, which has 
been called the Magna Charta of Hungary. Among its pro- 
visions are that the estates be henceforth annually convoked \ 
that no nobleman be arrested without being previously tried 
and legally sentenced ; that no contribution or tax be levied on 
the property of the nobles ; that high offices be neither heri- 
ditary, nor given to foreigners without the consent of the Diet; 
and that every noble had the right to resist with arms any 
attempt at the infringement of his privileges by the king. This 
charter, except the last clause, which was abolished in 1687 is 
still valid, and is sworn to by each successive king at his coro- 
nation. In 1 30 1 the race of Arpad became extinct, and several 
candidates came forward for the crown, but at length it was 
settled on the head of Duke Charles Robert of Anjou, a nephew 
of the King of Naples, and by his mother, a descendant of the 
extinct dynasty. Under this king and his son Lewis, who 
succeeded him, the power of Hungary was very much extended 
and consolidated. Moldavia, Wallachia, and other territories 
were added to it, and in 1370 on the death of Casimir the 
Great, the kingdom of Poland came to Lewis. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son-in-law, Sigismund of Brandenburg, afterwards 
Emperor of Germany. He engaged in wars with the Turks, a 
revolt of his subjects in Hungary for a time deprived him of 
his liberty, and he prosecuted the Hussi te war in Bohemia. 
During the reigns of Ladislaus III. and IV., the wars with the 
Turks continued, and brought out the hero John Hunyady, 

.;■■■., ^ujijii^:-- "■:•■■•:; •■ :: ';.i - - 


whose son, Matthias Corvinus, subsequently came to the throne 
in 1458. He was the ablest monarch that had ruled over 
Hungary. He vanquished in numerous campaigns the Turks, 
the Poles, and the Austrians, quelled his rebellious nobles, 
restored law and order in the country, promoted science and 
art, fostered industry and commerce. He was succeeded by 
Wladislaus II., of Poland, in whose reign broke out the peasant 
war, which was suppressed with dreadful bloodshed by John 
Zapolya, and the peasantry reduced to a state of serfdom. He 
was succeeded by his son Lewis II., who lost his life in the 
batde of Mohacs in 1526. The crown then fell to his brother- 
in-law, Ferdinand of Austria, and since that time the emperors 
of Austria have been the rulers of Hungary. 

Buda-Pesth (Ger. Budapest \ or Ofen-Pesf), the capital of 
Hungary, the seat of the government and chief courts of 
justice, consists of two towns, Buda on the right, and Pesth on 
the left bank of the Danube, formed into one city in 1872, and 
communicating by means of a magnificent suspension bridge, 
1272 feet in length, erected in 1842-49 by the English 
architect, Mr. Clark, who built Hammersmith Bridge. In 
1875 a new iron bridge was opened, for railway and passenger 
traffic, and another has been opened since. The city is 171 
miles E.S.E. of Vienna by railway. In 1836 Buda contained 
34,893, and Pesth 70,278 inhabitants; in 1857 Buda had 
55,240, and Pesth 131,705; and in 1869 Buda 53,998, and 
Pesth 200,476, making together 254,474 inhabitants. 

Buda (Ger. Of en), the old capital of Hungary, stands partly 
on, partly around, a rocky eminence, on the summit of which 
is the fortress. In the neighbourhood are the loftier hills of 
Blocksberg and Schwabenberg, the former of which is strongly 
fortified. The royal palace, completed by Maria Theresa in 
1 77 1, is the most conspicuous building within the fortress, and 
having been partially destroyed in 1849 it has since been 
restored with great splendour. In a small chapel here are 
preserved the crown and regalia of Hungary. In the garrison 
church repose the remains of Andrew III., the last of the 


Arpads. A tunnel has been made through the hill, 1 1 1 5 feet 
in length, in connexion with the chain bridge. Buda consists 
of the city proper and six suburbs, one of which is Old Buda, 
or Alt-Ofen, where are the docks and building-yards of the 
Danube Steam Navigation Company. Here, too, are remains 
of a Roman aqueduct, and a Jewish synagogue, formerly con- 
sidered the largest and finest in Hungary, but now sur- 
passed by the one recently erected in Pesth. At the foot of 
the Blocksberg are some hot sulphureous springs, in good 
repute, and from which the German name of the town is taken, 
Ofen (i. e. oven). Here is the grave of the Mohammedan 
saint, Gul Baba, to which pilgrims from Turkey still repair. 
Buda contains a number of churches, and many handsome 
edifices. It has a polytechnic institute, a gymnasium, a real 
school, and a number of other educational institutions. 

Pesth, unlike Buda, is built on a low, sandy plain, having 
nothing in its situation to recommend it ; and yet, from the 
number of its fine streets and squares, its magnificent public 
buildings and elegant shops, in general appearance it is not 
far behind Vienna. In 1780 it contained only 16,746 inhabi- 
tants, so that it is mostly of recent erection • and it is regularly 
and handsomely built, the streets being wide, straight, and 
well-paved, and lined with handsome edifices. It consists of 
the Innere Stadt or old town, and four suburbs, called Leopold, 
Theresa, Joseph, and Francis Towns respectively. The Innere 
Stadt and the Leopoldstadt lie along the bank of the river, the 
former below, the latter above the bridge. The Innere Stadt 
is the most fashionable quarter of the town. It contains many 
palaces of the aristocracy, the university, law courts, county 
hall, town hall, the best shops, and the most frequented 
streets. Leopoldstadt, however, has larger and handsomer 
houses, and is better laid out. Along the bank of the river 
extends a broad and handsome quay, about a mile and a half 
in length, and lined by lofty and elegant buildings. Among 
the principal edifices of Pesth are the chief parish church (St. 
Leopold's); the Jewish synagogue, erected in 1857, and con- 


sidered the finest in Hungary ; the National Museum, with 
large collections of antiquities, natural history, and art; the 
palace of the Hungarian, Academy, with a library of 150,000 
volumes ; the university buildings ; the Redoute buildings for 
assemblies and concerts; the new opera-house (1878) ; the 
National or Hungarian theatre ; the German theatre ; the 
Neugebaude, a large edifice erected by Joseph II. in 1786, now 
an artillery depot ; the large invalid hospital, now a barracks ; 
the Ludoviceum, now a military hospital ; new custom-house ; 
Rathhaus ; Landhaus, or hall of the Hungarian estates ; ex- 
change, &c. The university was founded in Tyrnau in 1635, 
transferred to Buda in 1777, and to Pesth in 1784. In 1875 
it had 149 professors and teachers, and 2566 students. There 
are also a technical high school, with 56 teachers and 818 
scholars, a military academy, commercial academy, three real 
schools, five gymnasia, and a number of other educational insti- 
tutions. There are likewise a number of literary and scientific 
associations, which meet at stated times and publish proceed- 
ings. The celebrated Esterhazy Gallery, consisting of 800 
pictures, 50,000 engravings, and 12,000 drawings, was removed 
from Vienna in 1865, and is established in the palace of the 
Academy here. The principal promenades are the Stadtwald- 
chen, a small park with ornamental water, on the outskirts of 
the town, and the Margaret Island in the Danube. 

Buda-Pesth is, after Vienna, the most important city on 
the Danube ; and it is also connected by railway with all the 
more important towns in the country. It is therefore a place 
of very considerable trade, particularly in corn, flour, wine, 
brandy, timber, cattle, wool, and various manufactured articles. 
Its manufactures include silks, velvets, cloth, leather, oil, 
tobacco, flour, brandy, carriages, machinery and iron wares, 
gold and silver articles, and meerschaum pipes. The wine 
produced in the neighbourhood is excellent, particularly the 
" Ofner " wine. Besides weekly markets, there are four annual 
fairs held here, which are visited by upwards of 30,000 
strangers. Of the population about 48 per cent, are Germans, 
32 per cent. Magyars, and 15 per cent. Jews. 


Szegedin, the largest city of Hungary after Buda-Pesth, is 
situated on the bank of the Theiss, nearly opposite the point 
where the Maros flows into it from the E., and also on the 
railway from Pesth to Temesvar, 117 miles S.S.E. of the former. 
It consists of the town proper and five suburbs, and has six 
Roman Catholic churches, a Greek church, a Piarist College, 
gymnasium, town hall, theatre, &c. It carries on a very impor- 
tant trade, and has the principal docks for vessels navigating 
the Theiss. The chief manufactures are cloth, tobacco, and 
soap. In March, 1879, tne town was partially destroyed by an 
overflow of the river. Population, 70,179. 

Pressburg, the capital of a county of the same name, for- 
merly capital of Hungary, and down to 1784 the place where 
its kings were crowned, stands on the left bank of the 
Danube, and on the railway between Vienna and Pesth, 42 
miles E. of the former, and 130 W.N.W. of the latter. It is 
pleasantly situated on the river bank, and rises gradually up 
the lower slopes of the Little Carpathians. On a height 
overlooking the town are the remains of the royal palace, 
accidently destroyed by fire in 181 1. Among the principal 
buildings are the cathedral of St. Martin, where the kings 
were crowned, a large Gothic edifice with a lofty tower; the 
Landhaus, in which the meetings of the Diet were held ; Rath- 
haus ; archiepiscopal palace ; and theatre. The educational 
institutions include an academy of law, gymnasium, and real 
school. A new university for Hungary is about to be esta- 
blished here. The chief manufactures are silk and cotton 
goods, tobacco, and leather ; and an active trade is carried on 
in wine and the other products of the district. Population, 

Debreczin stands on a sandy plain, 141 miles E. of Pesth 
by railway. It resembles more a large village than a town, 
being straggling and ill-built, the houses mostly of one storey 
and thatched, and the streets unpaved and dirty. The princi- 
pal building is a large Protestant church, in connexion with 
which is a Protestant college, with a library of 20,000 volumes. 
The inhabitants are mostly Calvinists, and the great majority 


are Magyars, whose character may here be most advantageously 
studied. The manufactures are considerable, and include 
coarse woollen cloth, leather, soap, tobacco pipes, cutlery, and 
wooden wares. An active trade is also carried on in the pro- 
ducts of the district, and four large fairs are held here annually. 
Population, 46,111. 

Temesvar, the capital of a circle of the same name in the 
Banat, is situated in a marshy plain on the Bega canal, 188 
miles S.E. of Pesth, with which it is connected by railway. 
It is fortified by walls, moats, and outworks ; and consists of 
a town proper, and four suburbs. The streets are generally 
wide and regular, and the houses well-built. The principal 
buildings are the Roman Catholic cathedral, a fine Gothic 
edifice ; handsome Greek cathedral ; Roman Catholic parish 
church; Jewish synagogue; old castle of John Hunyady; 
county hall ; two episcopal residences ; and large barracks. It 
is the seat both of a Roman Catholic, and a Greek bishop, and 
has a gymnasium and other schools. It has considerable 
manufactures of cloth, silk, paper, leather, and oil ; and carries 
on an important trade, particularly in corn. Population, 

Grosswardein (Magyar, Nagy-Varad), the capital of the 
county Bihar, is situated in a beautiful but somewhat marshy 
and unhealthy plain, on the river Koros, 154 miles E. of Pesth, 
with which it is connected by railway. It is the seat of a Roman 
Catholic, a Greek Catholic, and an Oriental Greek bishop, 
and has several handsome edifices, the finest of which is the 
cathedral. Among the educational institutions are an academy 
of law, theological seminary, and two gymnasia. It has extensive 
manufactures of earthenware, and carries on a considerable 
trade in wine, tobacco, cattle, &c. Several large annual fairs 
are held here. In the neighbourhood are warm sulphureous 
springs, well frequented, and valuable marble quarries. 
Population, 28,698. 

Transylvania (Ger. Siebenbiirgen, Magyar Erdely), Grand 
Duchy of, no longer forms an independent province, having 


been united with Hungary under one administration in 1868; 
yet it is of sufficient importance, and sufficiently distinct in 
character from Hungary, to entitle it to some separate notice. 
It is bounded on the N. by Hungary, E. by Bukowina and 
Moldavia, S. by Wallachia, and W. by Hungary. It lies 
between lat. 45 18' and 47 38' N., and long. 22 30' and 
26 20' E., and has an area of 21,214 square miles, with a 
population in 1869 of 2,101,727. 

Transylvania, as we have seen, is a mountainous country, 
rising from plains on all sides, and only connected at the N.E. 
extremity with the main chain of the Carpathians. It is sur- 
rounded on all sides by lofty mountain ranges from 4000 to 6000 
feet in height, while some elevations rise to 7500 and 8000 feet. 
In the E. are the Transylvanian High Carpathians, S. the Tran- 
sylvanian Alps, W. the Transylvanian Erzgebirge, and N. the 
Nagy-Banha Mountains. The principal passes in these chains, 
affording communication with the neighbouring districts, are the 
Rodna Pass into Bukowina, the Gymes, and the Ojtos Pass 
into Moldavia, the Torzburger, Nothenthurm, and Vulcan Pass 
into Wallachia, and the Pass of the Iron Gate into the Military 
Frontier. In the interior are numerous mountain ranges and 
groups of mountains, with river valleys running in different 
directions. The general elevation of the country is about 1200 
feet above the level of the sea. The principal rivers of the 
country are the Szamos in the N., the Maros, with its affluents, 
the Kokel, Aranyos, and Strehl, in the middle, and the Aluta 
in the South. There are few lakes, and they are all of small 
size, but there are numerous mineral springs. The climate 
varies considerably in different parts. In the higher regions the 
winter is generally severe, and often protracts itself far into the 
spring, while in the lower parts the summer heat is often 
extreme. At Hermannstadt the average annual temperature 
is 45.7°. Fahr., being for January 2 5. 8°., and for July 63 . 

Of the entire area about 86 per cent, is productive, and of 
this about 26 per cent, is arable, 18 per cent, meadows and 
gardens, \ per cent, vineyards, 1 1 per cent, pasture-land, and 


43 per cent, woods and forests. The principal grain crops are 
maize, oats, rye, and wheat, but owing to the want of proper 
cultivation, the amount produced is frequently below what is 
required by the people. Wine of good quality, and in con- 
siderable quantity, is produced in the valley of Szamos, and 
the lower valleys of the Kokel and Maros. Fruit is exten- 
sively cultivated, as are also tobacco, hemp, and flax. The 
rearing of horses and cattle receives more attention than agri- 
culture. The horses are numerous, and are distinguished for 
their beauty, nimbleness, and endurance. The cattle and 
sheep are also numerous, and many of them are of superior 
breeds. Among the former are a number of buffaloes ; and 
swine are particularly abundant. Among the wild animals 
found here are bears, wolves, foxes, also deer, hares, chamois, 
&c. The country is particularly rich in minerals. More than 
one-half of the gold obtained in the Monarchy is found here, 
the amount averaging 35,000 oz. annually. The principal 
gold-mines are at Zalathna, Abrudbanya, and Vorospatak; 
and it is also obtained by washing in the Maros, Szamos, 
Aranyos, and other streams. Silver is extracted, to the 
amount of about 86,000 oz. annually, mostly in the same dis- 
tricts where gold is found. Quicksilver (at Zalathna), copper, 
and lead, are also obtained, but not in large quantities. Iron 
and coal are found in various parts ; but at present they are 
not worked to any great extent. An important source of 
wealth are the salt-works at Maros-Ujvar and other parts, the 
amount of rock-salt annually raised being over 950,000 cwt. 
There exist large beds of clay suitable for earthenwares, and 
excellent building stones are everywhere found. 

The manufactures are chiefly confined to the production of 
such articles as are necessary for the simple wants of the people. 
Not much is done in the way of working up or improving the 
raw products of the country. Of the entire adult population 
only 1 1 per cent, are employed in the working of the metals, 
or of stone, or wood, and only about f "per cent, in weaving, 
which is chiefly a domestic industry. The principal manu* 

N 2 


facturing products are linen and woollen stuffs, leather, beer, 
brandy, earthenware, glass, and paper. The trade consists 
chiefly in the export of the natural products of the country, 
and the import of the manufacturing products of the West. A 
considerable transit trade is likewise carried on, particularly in 
corn and cattle, between Roumania and Hungary. The prin- 
cipal towns of Transylvania are connected with Pesth and the 
other towns of Hungary by railway. 

The inhabitants of Transylvania belong to several nationali- 
ties, speaking distinct languages, and of different religious 
beliefs. The most numerous are the Roumanians, who 
constitute more than one half of the population ; the Magyars 
and the Szeklers (a kindred people), form about \ and the 
Germans or Saxons, about ^ of the whole. Among the less 
numerous races are about 80,000 Gipsies and 20,000 Jews. 
Over 12 per cent, are Roman Catholics, 28 per cent. Greek 
Catholics, 31 per cent. Oriental Greeks, 10 per cent. Lutherans, 
14 per cent. Calvinists and 2\ per cent. Unitarians. Of the 
adult population about § are employed in agriculture, the 
forests, and the mines, 6 per cent, in manufacturing industry, 
1 per cent, in trade and commerce, and 15 per cent, in 
domestic service. 

Kronstadt, the largest and most populous, as well as the 
principal manufacturing and commercial town of the province, 
is situated near the S.E. extremity, in a narrow well-water ed 
valley hemmed in on three sides by hills. It consists of an 
inner town surrounded by walls, and three suburbs, and is pro- 
tected by a castle of some strength. The principal buildings 
are the old Gothic parish church (Lutheran), with a large 
organ, Roman Catholic church, Rathhaus, Kaufhaus, gym- 
nasium, and theatre. The chief manufactures are woollen 
and linen stuffs, leather, paper, and refined wax. Dyeing is 
also carried on. A very active trade is carried on in cattle, 
corn, wine, salt, &c, which is now favoured by the extension 
of the railway systenrto this part. Population, 27,766. 

Klausenburg (Magyar, Kolosvar), the capital of Transylvania, 


is pleasantly situated in a beautiful and fertile valley on the 
Szamos, 72 miles N.N.W. of Hermannstadt. It was founded by 
German colonists in 11 78, but it is now mostly a Magyar city. 
It consists of the city proper and six suburbs, and is well built, 
having large substantial houses, and wide, open, and well paved 
streets. A large portion of the old walls which once sur- 
rounded the town are still standing, with some of the towers 
and gateways. Among the principal buildings are the fine old 
Gothic Catholic church and several of the other churches, 
Rathhaus, theatre, and numerous palaces of the nobility. It 
has a number of institutions for higher education, among which 
are an academy of law, and three gymnasia, and in 1872 a new 
university was established here, which in 1875 had 23 pro- 
fessors and teachers, and 178 students. There is also an 
interesting museum of natural history and antiquities and a 
large library. The principal manufactures are tobacco, spirits, 
leather, paper, and beet-root sugar. Population, 26,382. 

Hermannstadt (Magyar, Nagy Szeben), the capital of the 
German portion of Transylvania, is pleasantly situated on an 
irregular eminence of no great elevation, in an extensive valley 
on the Zibin, an affluent of the Aluta, 70 miles W.N.W. of 
Kronstadt. It consists of an upper and lower town and three 
suburbs. The houses here are smaller, and the streets less 
regular or spacious and worse paved, than in Klausenburg. 
Considerable portions of the old walls still remain, but in a 
very dilapidated condition. The Gothic parish church is a hand- 
some edifice surmounted by a lofty tower. The Bruckenthaler 
palace contains a natural history museum, picture-gallery and 
library. Hermannstadt is the seat of several courts and of a 
Greek Catholic and an Oriental Greek bishop. There are a 
number of educational and benevolent institutions, and various 
literary and scientific associations. The manufactures are 
chiefly woollen and linen goods, hats, leather, paper, candles, 
earthenware, and tobacco-pipes. Population, 18,998. 

Croatia-Slavonia (Ger. Kroatien-Slavonieii), Kingdom of, is 
bounded on the N. by Styria and Hungary, E. by Hungary, S. 


by the principality of Servia, the territories of Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, and Dalmatia, and W. by the Adriatic Sea, Istria, 
Carniola and Styria. Including the Military Frontier, it has an 
area of 16,172 square miles, with a population in 1869 of 

The Military Frontier (Ger. Militcirgrenze) originally com- 
prised a long tract of country extending along the S. boundary 
of the Monarchy, from the Adriatic to Transylvania, and 
intended as a protection against Turkey. It was originally 
formed by Ferdinand I. about the middle of the 16th century, 
and subsequently underwent repeated changes. The inhabitants 
were at once cultivators of the soil, and soldiers, holding their lands 
under conditions of military service. Every male between the 
ages of 18 and 60 was liable to military service, and was occu- 
pied in such duties for about eight months in the year. They 
formed 14 regiments of infantry, 1 of hussars and 2 battalions 
of boatmen, amounting in all to about 45,000 men in time of 
peace. In 1851 the Transylvanian Military Frontier was 
abolished, and in 1869 the then existing Military Frontier, had 
an area of 7308 square miles, with 699,228 inhabitants. In 
1872 the Hungarian Military Frontier was incorporated with 
Hungary, and the next year a royal order was issued for the 
incorporation of the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontiers 
with Croatia and Slavonia under the name of the Croatia- 
Slavonian Boundary District, with a new organization. 

Croatia forms the W. and Slavonia the E. portion of this 
territory. The prevailing character of the surface of Croatia, 
is mountainous and that of Slavonia flat. The N. portion of 
the former is traversed by the Warasdiner range, a branch of 
the Carnic Alps constituting the watershed between the Drave 
and the Save. The S. and larger portion is generally covered 
with lofty mountains forming a continuation of the Julian Alps, 
and bearing the general name of the mountains of Velebich. 
They consist of two principal chains called the Great and Little 
Kapella, and rise to the height of over 5000 feet. This 
mountainous portion of Croatia belongs to the region of the 


Karst, and has numerous cavern and underground passages, in 
which streams disappear to afterwards reappear. The pro- 
longation of the Carnic Alps is continued from Croatia into 
Slavonia, traversing the latter territory between the Drave and the 
Save and terminating somewhat abruptly on reaching the banks 
of the Danube. The loftiest summit here is Mount Papuk, 
3130 feet high, but generally they are of much less elevation, 
and are covered to their summits with excellent timber. 

With the exception of some small coast streams which fall 
into the Adriatic, the rivers are all affluents of the Danube. 
The principal of these are the Drave, and the Save with its 
tributaries the Kulpa and Unna. The Drave enters the 
country from Styria, flows generally in an E.S.E. direction 
along the N. boundary, separating it from Hungary, to its 
mouth in the Danube below Essek. The Save after forming 
the boundary between Styria and Carniola, enters Croatia, and, 
after receiving the Unna, forms the boundary between this 
territory and Bosnia and Servia to its mouth in the Danube 
between Semlin and Belgrade. Its course is generally E.S.E. 
but with numerous turnings and windings. Both these streams 
are navigable for their entire length in this territory. Between 
the mouth of the Drave and the Save the Danube flows along 
the border and separates it from Hungary. The coast-line 
is about 86 miles in length, but is for the most part steep 
and rocky, and presents few safe harbours. There are nu- 
merous lakes, but they are all of small size. There are also a 
number of mineral springs, some of which are in good repute, 
as those at Krapina, Toplice near Warasdin, Stubica near 
Agram, Daruvar, &c. The climate varies greatly in different 
parts. The high lands are very much exposed to the action of 
certain w T inds, which, notwithstanding their S. position, some- 
times render them intensely cold, while the low-lying parts 
generally enjoy a moderately warm climate. The temperature 
is mildest towards the coast, becoming by degrees less so as we 
proceed inwards. Thus at Fiume the average temperature for 
January is 41. 6°, and for July 72 ; while at Agram for January 


it is 31. 2 , and for July 67. 7 , the average annual temperature 
being 50 . 

Of the civil portion of the territory about 87 per cent, is 
productive, and of this 31 per cent, is arable, 43 per cent, 
woods, 1 3 per cent, meadows and gardens, 1 1 per cent, pasture- 
land, and 2 per cent, vineyards. In the Military Frontier, 80 
per cent, is productive, and of this 30 per cent, is arable, 35 
per cent, woods, 18 per cent, meadows and gardens, 16 per 
cent, pastures, and 1 per cent, vineyards. The agricultural 
products of the two parts also differ. In the Military Frontier 
considerably less wheat, oats, and rye are cultivated, and con- 
sequently more maize, barley, and millet than in the other part. 
Taken together the principal grain crops are maize, wheat, oats, 
rye, barley, and millet. Croatia does not produce enough of 
corn for the wants of its population, while Slavonia has 
annually a considerable quantity for export. The flat portion 
of Slavonia is mostly of great fertility, producing abundant 
crops ; only on the banks of the Drave are many swamps and 
marshes, and the land is subject to frequent inundations. The 
amount of wine annually produced in the civil district is about 
28,000,000 gallons, and in the Military about half this quantity. 
Large quantities of fruit are grown, particularly plums from 
which a spirit is distilled. The rearing of cattle is not exten- 
sively carried on and the breeds are not generally distinguished 
for excellence. Horses are more numerous in Slavonia than 
in Croatia but are not remarkable except as being strong and 
hardy. Sheep on the other hand are more numerous in 
Croatia, and some of them are of superior excellence. Swine 
are very numerous, particularly in the neighbourhood of the 
forests. Bees and the silk-worm are common, about 600 cwt. of 
cocoons being produced annually. The rivers abound in fish ; 
and leeches form an article of export, obtained chiefly in the 
lakes and marshes about Essek. The mineral productions of 
this province are inconsiderable. Iron, copper, sulphur, and 
brown coal are found, but not in any large quantities. There 
are also marble, building-stone and millstone quarries, but alto- 


gether in mining, quarrying, and smelting, scarcely 400 persons 
are employed. 

The manufactures are still in a very backward state, and are 
generally conducted on a very limited scale. Their principal 
seats are the larger towns as Fiume, Agram, Essek, &c. They 
include linen and woollen stuffs, leather, paper, glass, porcelain, 
earthenware, hardware, wooden wares, brandy, rosoglio and 
other spirits, sugar, soap, tobacco, and chemical products. At 
Fiume and a few other places, ship and boat-building and sail- 
making are carried on. The trade is considerable, consisting 
in the export of corn and other natural products of the country, 
and the import of manufactured goods of various kinds and 
colonial and other products. Slavonia in particular exports largely 
corn, wine, timber, cattle, swine, hides and skins, honey and wax. 
The export of timber, on the coast, is rapidly increasing. 
Croats and Serbs form about 97 per cent, of the entire popula- 
tion ; and are chiefly distinguished from each other in that the 
former are Roman Catholics, and the latter belong to the 
Oriental Greek church. The Croats constitute 74 per cent, of 
the population of the whole territory, and are distinguished by 
difference of dialect into Sloveno-Croats and Serbo-Croats. 
The Serbs form 23 per cent, of the population, so that there is 
only 3 per cent, of other nationalities, of which the Germans, 
(chiefly in Slavonia) form 1 per cent, and the Magyars (also 
mostly in Slavonia) only 0.6 per cent. The Jews are not 
numerous. There are a few Italians dwelling on the coast and 
some Albanians chiefly in Slavonia. As regards religion about 
y 6 ^ are Roman Catholics, and about \ belong to the Oriental 
Greek church, about \ of the small remainder being Protestants. 
About 80 per cent, of the adult population are engaged in 
agriculture and the forests, 7 per cent, in the civil and 4 per cent, 
in the military portion in the manufacturing industries, and little 
more than 1 per cent, in trade and commerce. In the military 
division there are no less than 13 per cent, domestic ser- 
vants (to offlcers, &c), and in the civil division 6 per cent. 
Education is here very much neglected, and the people in 


general are very ignorant. This is more the case in the civil 
than in the military division. While in the latter f of the 
population can neither read nor write, in the former the pro- 
portion is as high as f. 

Agra7n, the capital of the province and a royal free-town is 
pleasantly situated on a wooded slope, near the left bank of the 
Save, 290 miles S. of Vienna and 106 E. of Trieste. It 
consists of the upper or free town, the lower or chapter town, 
and the bishop's town ; and is the seat of an archbishop and 
the principal courts of the province. The first is the most 
fashionable part of the town, and the streets here are regular 
and well built, but in the lower town, chiefly inhabited by the 
poorer classes, the streets are generally irregular and dirty, and 
the houses mean. The principal buildings are the cathedral, a 
fine Gothic edifice with a lofty tower, the archiepiscopal palace, 
Rathhaus, Landhaus, National museum, &c. There are a 
university having 25 professors and teachers, and 205 students, 
a gymnasium, real school, and several literary and scientific 
societies, among which is a Southern Slav historical society. The 
chief manufactures are silk and porcelain ; and an active trade 
is carried on in grain, potash, tobacco, and honey. Population, 


Essek, a royal free town and the chief town of Slavonia, as 
A gram is the chief town of Croatia, stands in a marshy district 
on the right bank of the Drave, thirteen miles above its 
mouth in the Danube, and 120 miles E. by S. of Agram. It 
was strongly fortified by the Emperor Leopold I., and consists 
of the fortress or town proper and the Upper, Lower, and New 
towns. It has three Roman Catholic and one Greek parish 
churches, Rathhaus, Landhaus, arsenal, and barracks. The 
inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the spinning of silk. It is a 
steamboat station, and a place of considerable trade, particularly 
in corn, cattle, raw hides, and leeches. Population, 17,247. 

Fhime, a royal free town and free port, the only seaport of 
Hungary, is situated on the Adriatic near the head of the Gulf 
of Quarnero, where it receives the small stream Fiumara, 115 


miles W.S.W. of Agram, and 38 miles S.E. of Trieste. It consists 
of an old and a new town, the former standing on a hill, and 
consisting of steep and narrow streets, with old and mean houses; 
the latter extending along the shore, and having wide, clean, 
and well-paved streets, and many handsome edifices. The old 
high church is adorned with a beautiful front after the style of 
the Pantheon at Rome. The church of St. Veit is a very fine 
building in imitation of that of St. Maria della Salute at Venice. 
The Casino is a handsome edifice containing coffee and ball 
rooms and a theatre. Fiume carries on important manufactures, 
especially of paper, tobacco, sailcloth, chemicals, ship biscuits, 
and maccaroni. Shipbuilding is also actively carried on. 
Being the principal seaport for a large district of country 
behind it, it has a very considerable trade. The chief exports 
are corn, wine, tobacco, timber, fruit, and salted provisions. 
The harbour is accessible only to vessels of small size, but the 
largest vessels can lie in the roadstead within a short distance 
of the town. Fiume, though situated in Croatia, is not subject 
to the provincial authorities, but with a small district round 
it, amounting in all to about seven square miles, is directly 
under the administration of the Hungarian Government, and 
its governor is a member of the House of Magnates. 
Population, 13,314. 

Bosnia and Herzegovina, which are at present occupied and 
administered by Austria- Hungary in terms of the Berlin Treaty 
of 1878, previously formed the most N.W. province or eyalet 
of European Turkey. They lie immediately S. of Croatia 
and Slavonia, from which they are separated by the rivers Unna 
and Save, and E. of Dalmatia, having on the E. Servia, and S. 
Prisrend, Albania, and Montenegro. They extend from lat. 
42 30' to 45° 15' N., and from long. 15 40' to 21 10' East, 
and have an area of 24,247 square miles. 

With the exception of the valley of the Save in the north, 
the surface of the country is generally mountainous, being 
traversed in different directions by mountain ranges of various 
elevations, from 3000 to over 8000 feet. A branch of the 


Dinaric Alps runs from N.W. to S.E. through the territory, and 
forms the watershed between the rivers flowing northward into 
the Save and those which flow southward. The valleys are 
well watered, the principal rivers being the Save, with its afflu- 
ents the Unna, Verbas, Bosna, and Drina, and the Narenta, 
which falls into the Adriatic. The mountains consist chiefly 
of limestone, with sandstone and shales of the carboniferous 
system ; and beds of coal are said to be general throughout the 
country. The great mineral wealth of this region, however, is 
still undeveloped, though a few mines of iron, lead, quicksilver, 
and coal, are worked. Gold and silver are also found in some 
parts. The slopes of the mountains are for the most part 
densely covered with forests of oak, beach, pine, lime, chestnut, 
and other trees, which furnish almost inexhaustible stores of 
timber for building purposes and fuel. The forests occupy 
nearly one-half of the entire area of the country. Over 5000 
feet in elevation the trees cease, and are succeeded by an 
Alpine vegetation. 

The climate is variable and severe, but not unhealthy. The 
winter lasts long, and the spring is short, while the summer is 
extremely hot. The country is generally better adapted for 
feeding cattle than for agriculture, and it is only in the valleys 
and low- lying parts that any cultivation is carried on. The 
arable land occupies about one-fourth of the entire area. The 
principal grain crops are maize and wheat, but barley, oats, and 
even rice, are also produced. Plums are largely grown, and the 
vine, olive, fig, and pomegranate flourish. Sheep, goats, swine, 
and poultry, are raised in great numbers, but cattle and horses 
receive less attention. Game and fish abound, as well as wild 
animals, such as bears, wolves, lynxes, &c. Industry and trade 
are in a very low state, and are only carried on to any extent 
in the towns and larger villages. The manufactures are chiefly 
coarse cutlery and fire-arms, leather, ropes, and woollen goods 
chiefly for home use. The exports include agricultural products, 
fruit, timber, cattle, hides, wool, honey, and wax. The principal 
imports are colonial goods, cloth, cotton, salt, and cutlery. 


The inhabitants are almost entirely Southern Slavs, and with 
few exceptions Serbs. In character they are rude and bar- 
barous, insolent, and repellent to strangers, lazy and dissipated, 
but at the same time daring and brave, though cruel and 
treacherous. In their domestic relations they are simple and . 
primitive, and in religious matters bigoted and superstitious. 
According to the census of 1879 tne total population amounted 
to 1,142,147, of whom 487,022 belonged to the Oriental Greek 
Church, 442,500 were Mohammedans, 208,950 Roman 
Catholics, and 3426 Jews. The Mohammedans are nearly 
all descendants of Slavs who embraced Islamism in order to 
preserve their estates. The Turks in the country are few. 

Bosnia, in early times, was governed by princes of its own, 
who afterwards became dependent on Hungary. In the 
beginning of the 15th century, Turkey laid claim to the province, 
and at length it was annexed to the Ottoman Empire in 1522 
by Solyman the Magnificent. Many efforts have been made 
by the Bosnians to regain their independence. In 1849 a 
rebellion broke out, which was quelled by Omar Pasha in 
185 1. In 1875 tne people were again in revolt, and were only 
subdued in 1877. After the treaty of Berlin was concluded, 
the Austrian troops crossed the river Save in July, 1878, but 
everywhere met with the most determined resistance from the 
people, supported, it was said, by Turkish soldiers. The 
Austrians, however, were generally successful, and entered 
the capital, Bosna-Serai, on 10th August. In April, 1879, a 
convention was concluded between Turkey and Austria, with 
reference to the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 
which the latter recognized the suzerainty of the Sultan, and 
the rights of the Porte in regard to religious matters and real 

Bosna- Serai, or Seraievo (Ital : Seraglio), the capital of the 
province of Bosnia, occupies a romantic position on both sides 
of the Migliazza, near its confluence with the Bosna, 250 miles 
S. of Buda-Pesth. It is 1700 feet above the level of the sea, 
and is surrounded on three sides by lofty mountains. The 


walls which surrounded the town have fallen into decay, and 
the citadel is a place of no strength. The houses generally 
are mean, but there are numerous mosques, and several 
Roman Catholic and Greek churches, which give the town a 
striking appearance. It is a great centre of trade between 
Turkey, and Dalmatia and Croatia. The principal manufactures 
are iron, copper and tin-wares, fire-arms, cutlery, leather, and 
cotton and woollen clothes. There are iron-mines in the 
vicinity. Population (1879), 21,577. 

Novi-Bazar, the capital of a Sandjak of the same name in 
the province of Bosnia, is situated on the Rashka, an affluent 
of the Morava, 130 miles S.E. of Bosna-Serai. It is meanly 
built, the houses being mostly of mud, but is a place of con- 
siderable trade, and large fairs are held here periodically. 
Population about 10,000. 




The present Austro-Hungarian Monarchy took its rise in a 
Margraviate founded by Charlemagne towards the close of the 
eighth century in that fertile tract of country lying along the 
S. bank of the Danube, E. of the river Enns, and now included 
in Lower Austria. It was called O stretch or Oesterreich — the 
eastern country, from its position relatively to the rest of 
Germany; and its governor received the title of Margrave or 
lord of the Marches. 

This territory was in early times inhabited by the Taurisci — 
a Celtic race who were afterwards better known as the 
Norici. They were conquered by the Romans in B.C. 
14, and thereafter a portion of what is now Lower Austria 
and Styria, with the municipal city of Vindobona, now 
Vienna, and even then a place of considerable impor- 
tance, were formed into the province of Pannonia ; and 
the rest of Lower Austria and Styria, together with Carinthia 
and a part of Carniola, into that of Noricum. Tyrol was 
included in Rhaetia ; while N. of the Danube, and extending to 
the borders of Bohemia and Moravia, were the territories of 
the Marcomanni and the Quadi. These were not unfrequently 
troublesome to the Romans ; and during the greater part of 
the reign of Marcus Aurelius, from 169 to 180 a.d., they 
maintained with varying success a harassing war against them. 
In 174 the Roman army was so nearly cut off by the Quadi, 
that its safety was attributed to a miracle. The emperor 
died at Vindobona when on an expedition against these 


troublesome neighbours, and his successor Commodus was 
glad to come to terms of peace. On the decline of the 
imperial power, the Roman provinces here became a prey to 
the incursions of barbaric tribes. During the fifth and sixth 
centuries, the country was successively occupied by the Boii, 
Vandals, Goths, Huns, Lombards, and Avari. About 568, 
after the Lombards had settled in Upper Italy, the river Enns 
became the boundary between the Bajuvarii — a people of 
German origin, and the Avari, who had come from the East. 
In 788 the Avari crossed the Enns and attacked Bavaria — then 
a part of the Frankish empire, but were subsequently driven 
back by Charlemagne, and forced to retreat as far as the Raab, 
their country from the Enns to that river being then made 
a part of Germany. It was taken by the Magyars in 900, but 
was again annexed to Germany by Otto I. in 955. In 983 the 
emperor appointed Leopold I. of Babenberg or Bamberg 
Margrave of Austria, and his dynasty ruled the country for 
263 years. He died in 994, and was succeeded by his son 
Henry I., who governed till 1018. In 115 6, Austria received 
an accession of territory W. of the Enns, and was raised to a 
duchy by the Emperor Frederic I. The first duke was Henry 
Jasomirgott, who took part in the second crusade. He 
removed the ducal residence to Vienna, and began the building 
of St. Stephen's cathedral. His successor, Leopold V., in 
1 192 obtained Styria as an addition to his territory; and 
Frederic II. received possession of Carniola. This last in the 
latter years of his life contemplated the raising of Austria to a 
kingdom, but his death in a battle against the Magyars in 
1246 put an end to the project, and with him the line became 

The Emperor of Germany now declared Austria and Styria 
to have lapsed to the imperial crown, and appointed a 
lieutenant to govern them. But a claimant came forward in 
the person of Margrave Hermann of Baden, who was married 
to a niece of the late duke ; and after his death, the states 
chose Ottokar, son of the king of Bohemia, who was duly 


invested with the government. In 1269 he succeeded to 
Carinthia and a part of Carniola and Friuli, but he lost all by 
refusing to acknowledge the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg, 
and eventually fell in battle in an attempt to recover them 
in 1278. 

The emperor now took possession of the country, and 
appointed his oldest son governor; but, subsequently, in 1282, 
having obtained the sanction of the electors of the empire, he 
conferred the territories of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia on 
his sons Albert and Rudolf, and thus introduced the Hapsburg 
dynasty. Albert afterwards obtained the sole rule; and he 
extended his possessions considerably by wars with his 
neighbours, but was murdered in 1308 by a nephew whom he 
had deprived of his hereditary possessions. He was succeeded 
by his five sons, the last of whom, Albert, died sole ruler in 
1358, and was succeeded by his son Rudolf II., who finished 
the church of St. Stephen's, and founded the University of 
Vienna. On his death, in 1365, he was succeeded by his two 
brothers Albert and Leopold, who, in 1379, divided their 
possessions between them, the former taking Austria, the latter 
Styria and other parts. Leopold fell at Sempach in 1386, but 
his descendants continued to rule in Styria. Albert acquired 
Tyrol and some other districts, and died in 1395. He was 
succeeded by his son Albert IV., who was poisoned at Znaim 
in 1404, when on an expedition againt Procopius, Count of 
Moravia. Albert V. succeeded his father, and, having married 
the daughter of the Emperor Sigismund, he obtained the 
thrones of Hungary and Bohemia, and became Emperor of 
Germany in 1438. He died the following year, and was 
succeeded by his posthumous son Ladislaus, who dying 
without issue in 1457, the Austrian branch of the family became 
extinct It was succeeded by that of Styria, but the crowns of 
Hungary and Bohemia passed for a time into other hands. 

The possession of Austria, which in the last reign had been 
raised to an archduchy, was for some years a subject of dispute 
between the Emperor Frederic III. and his brothers ; but, at 



length, on the death of Albert in 1464, the emperor obtained 
sole possession. His son Maximilian succeeded his father 
as Emperor of Germany in 1493. He added Tyrol and some 
parts of Bavaria to his ancestral possessions, and advanced 
claims on Hungary and Bohemia. Maximilian died in 1519, 
and was succeeded by his grandson Charles V., who, a few 
years later, resigned all his hereditary possessions in Germany 
to his brother Ferdinand. The latter, by his marriage with 
Anna, sister of the king of Hungary, acquired right to the 
kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, together with Moravia, 
Silesia, and Lausatia. His right to Hungary, however, was 
contested by John Zapolya, who, obtaining the aid of the 
Sultan, Soliman II., in 1529, advanced with a large army to 
the very gates of Vienna, but after several ineffectual attempts 
to take it, he raised the siege and returned to Buda. At 
length, in 1535, an agreement was come to, allowing John 
to retain half of Hungary'with the title of king, but his descend- 
ants only to have Transylvania. John died in 1540; but the 
people of Lower Hungary were opposed to Ferdinand, and 
set up the son of their late king in opposition to him. The 
aid of the Turks was again invoked, and eventually Ferdinand 
had to agree to pay an annual tribute of 30,000 ducats to the 
Sultan for this part of Hungary. On the abdication of 
Charles V. in 1556, Ferdinand succeeded to the imperial 
throne. He died in 1564, leaving his possessions to be 
divided between his three sons. The eldest, Maximilian II. , 
received the imperial crown together with Austria, Hungary, 
and Bohemia. The second, Ferdinand, obtained Tyrol and 
Upper Austria. And the third, Charles, was made master of 
Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Gorz. Maximilian was more 
fortunate in Hungary than his father. The sudden death of 
Soliman before Szigeth in 1566 led to a truce, and peace was 
subsequently concluded with his successor. In 1572 Maximilian 
caused his eldest son Rudolf to be crowned king of Hungary ; 
in 1575 he was crowned king of Bohemia, and was also elected 
king of Rome. Maximilian II., under whose wise and tolerant 


reign Protestantism made great progress in the Austrian 
territories, died in 1576, and was succeeded in the imperial 
throne by Rudolf II. During his reign the possessions of the 
Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol reverted to the other two lines. 
This monarch was little fitted to rule, and left the manage- 
ment of affairs very much to others. He was entirely under 
the power of the Jesuits, set at nought the ancient laws of the 
country, and persecuted the Protestants. In 1608 he was 
compelled to cede Hungary, and in 161 1 Bohemia and Austria, 
to his brother Matthias, who, on his death, in 161 2, was 
crowned emperor. His reign was full of promise, but, unfor- 
tunately, it was only of short duration. 

Being an old man and childless, he chose as his successor 
his cousin Ferdinand, Archduke of Styria, whom he caused to 
be crowned King of Bohemia in 161 6, and of Hungary 1618. 
He died the following year, but lived long enough to witness 
the commencement of the great struggle between Roman 
Catholicism and Protestantism, known as the thirty years' war 
(1618 — 1648). Ferdinand had manifested himself as an ardent 
supporter of Romanism, and a determined enemy of Pro- 
testantism ; and the Bohemians declined to acknowledge him 
as king, but chose instead the Elector Palatine, Frederic V. 
The latter was supported by all the Protestant princes, except 
the Elector of Saxony, while Ferdinand was assisted by the 
Catholic princes and the King of Spain. At first, success at- 
tended the arms of the insurgents, but at length Frederic was 
totally defeated at White Hill, near Prague (1620), and in a 
short time the country was reduced to subjection. The in- 
habitants suffered the most cruel persecutions, and many 
thousands of them were driven into exile. At length they were 
compelled again to take up arms, and Christian IV. King of 
Sweden, put himself at their head. The war waged for some 
years with varying success, but at last the king was compelled to 
conclude a humiliating peace at Lubeck, in 1629. The Pro- 
testants were now subjected to even greater hardships, but a 
new champion appeared in the person of Gustavus Adolphus, 

o 2 


King of Sweden. The Elector of Brandenburg, and after- 
wards the Elector of Saxony joined Gustavus, and the com- 
bined army engaged the imperialists under Tilly, at Breitenfeld, 
near Leipsic, and defeated them with great slaughter ( 1 7th Sept., 
1 631). Again Tilly was beaten at the passage of the river 
Lech on 5th April, 1632, and the next day he died of his 
wounds. Wallenstein was now placed in command of the 
imperialists, and the eventful struggle between the two great 
generals took place at Lutzen on 6th Nov. 1632. The greatest 
skill and bravery were displayed on both sides, and the issue 
was long doubtful, but at length victory declared for the 
Swedes, though dearly purchased with the loss of their brave 
commander, who fell mortally wounded. Nor did Wallen- 
stein long survive, for being suspected of treacherous designs 
against the empire, and having many enemies in the army and 
at court, he was on 25th Feb., 1634, assassinated by some of 
his own officers, who were afterwards rewarded by the emperor. 
Saxony and the Lutheran states soon after concluded peace 
with the emperor, leaving the Calvinists to their fate. Sweden, 
no longer able to carry on the war alone, called to her aid 
France, to whom she resigned the direction of operations. 
The emperor died in 1637, and was succeeded by his son Ferdi- 
nand III. The war was continued for eleven years longer, 
but at length the emperor, pressed on all sides, was glad to 
agree to terms of peace, which were signed at Westphalia, 
24th Oct., 1648. France acquired Alsace; Sweden Upper 
Pomerania, the Isle of Rugen, and some other parts ; and the 
Calvinists were placed on the same footing as the Lutherans. 
This religious war and persecution cost the House of Austria 
the flower of its possessions. In Bohemia, of 732 towns, only 
130 remained, and of 30,700 villages., scarcely 6000; while of 
3,000,000 inhabitants, only 780,000 were left. 

Ferdinand died in 1657, and was succeeded by his son 
Leopold I., who by his harsh treatment of the Hungarians, 
drove that people into revolt. Unable to cope single-handed 
with the empire, they called in the aid of the Turks, who 


under Kara Mustapha, in 1683, besieged Vienna, and the city 
was only saved by the arrival of an army of Poles and Germans, 
under John Sobieski. The imperial army then reduced the 
whole of Hungary into subjection, uniting to it Transylvania, 
which had hitherto been governed by its own princes, and the 
whole was declared to be an hereditary kingdom. In 1699 
Prince Eugene compelled the Turks, by the peace of Carlo- 
vitz, to cede to Hungary the country lying between the Danube 
and Theiss, and by the peace of Passarovicz in 17 18, to yield up 
other important provinces. The death of Charles II. of Spain, 
without leaving issue, led to the war of the Spanish Succes- 
sion, between Leopold and Louis XIV. Leopold died in 1705, 
and was succeeded by his oldest son, Joseph L, by whom the 
war was continued. The latter died childless, in 171 1, and 
was succeeded by his brother Charles VI. By the peace of 
Utrecht, nth April, 17 13, Austria received the Netherlands, 
and the Spanish possessions in Italy — Milan, Mantua, Naples, 
and Sardinia (in 1720 exchanged for Sicily). The Monarchy 
now comprised about 255,000 square miles, with nearly 
29,000,000 inhabitants; it had an annual revenue of about 
1,400,000/., and an army of 130,000 men. 

Charles, being without heirs-male, was desirous of securing 
the succession to his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, and with 
this view he framed the celebrated Pragmatic Sanction, to 
which he eventually succeeded in getting the assent of the other 
powers of Europe. In 1733 ne became involved in a war with 
France, which was carried on principally in Italy, and resulted 
in his being obliged to cede Naples and Sicily to Don Carlos of 
Spain, and part of Lombardy to the king of Sardinia, receiving 
only Parma and Piacenza in return. In a war with the Turks 
he was obliged to give up, by the peace of Belgrade (1739), 
nearly all that the arms of Eugene had gained — Belgrade, Servia, 
and the Austrian portions of Wallachia and Bosnia. He died 
20th October, 1740, and was succeeded by his eldest daughter, 
Maria Theresa, who was married to the Duke of Lorraine or 
Lothringen, afterwards Archduke of Tuscany. Immediately 


counter-claims were advanced on all sides. The Elector of 
Bavaria claimed to be the rightful heir to the kingdom of 
Bohemia ; the Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, and 
also the King of Spain, claimed the entire succession ; the King 
of Sardinia laid claim to the Duchy of Milan; and Frederic the 
Great of Prussia, to the province of Silesia. France espoused 
the cause of Bavaria, while England alone came forward to the 
assistance of the queen, and the Hungarians, now united and 
loyal, willingly recruited her armies. Aided by France and 
Saxony, the Elector of Bavaria, took possession of Bohemia, 
and was proclaimed king in 1741, and the following year he 
was elected Emperor of Germany, as Charles VII. The King 
of Prussia marched suddenly into Silesia, and took possession 
of that country. The Elector of Bavaria, aided by French 
troops, next invaded Austria, and even threatened Vienna. 
The queen fled to Pressburg, and convoked the Hungarian 
Diet. Appearing in the midst of the assembly with her infant 
son in her arms, she appealed to them for protection and help, 
and a powerful Hungarian army was speedily at her service. 
The French and Bavarians were soon driven out of the Arch- 
duchy. Not so the Prussians, who having defeated the Aus- 
trians at Czaslau in May, 1742, were, by the peace of Breslau 
which followed, confirmed in the possession of Upper and 
Lower Silesia. In 1744 the King of Prussia again took the 
field, but the death of the emperor the following year, and the 
accession of the husband of Maria Theresa to the imperial 
throne under the title of Francis I., changed the aspect of 
affairs, and a peace was concluded at Dresden, which confirmed 
Frederic in the possession of Silesia. The war with France was 
continued for some time longer, but at length peace was con- 
cluded at Aix la Chapelle in 1748, when Austria ceded Parma, 
Piacenza, and Guastalla, to Don Philip of Spain, and several 
districts of Milan to Sardinia. Maria Theresa, still harbouring 
evil designs against Frederic, now set herself to strengthen 
and improve her army and to form alliances with foreign 
powers. In July, 1756, Frederic despatched a messen- 


ger to Vienna, to ascertain the meaning of the massing of 
troops in Bohemia and Moravia, and receiving an evasive 
answer, he at once marched an army of 60,000 men into Sax- 
ony, took Dresden, and made himself master of the country. 
This was the commencement of the Seven Years' War, in which 
Austria was assisted by the French, Russians, and Swedes, and 
Prussia by the English. The contest raged long with varying 
success. The Austrians were beaten at Prague, Rossbach, and 
Leuthen (1757) at Zorndorf (1758), at Liegnitz and Torgau 
(1760) ; and on the other hand were victorious at Collin, and 
Breslau(i757), at Hochkirk(i7s8), and at Kunersdorf (1759). 
The ablest general opposed to Frederic was Daun. The king 
was often reduced to great difficulties, and at last seemed 
on the verge of ruin, when in 1762 the Empress of Russia 
died, and her successor, Peter III., recalled his troops and made 
peace with Prussia. Sweden soon after followed this example, 
and at length peace was signed at the castle of Hubertsburg in 
Saxony, 15th February, 1763, confirming Prussia in the pos- 
session of Silesia. This war, disastrous alike to all concerned, 
and which brought no territorial advantage to either party, is 
believed to have cost not less than 853,000 actual fighting-men. 

Maria Theresa now zealously devoted herself to improving 
the condition of her people and country. She established 
schools, removed feudal hardships, improved the condition of 
the serfs, reformed ecclesiastical abuses, and fostered industry 
and commerce. The Emperor Francis died in 1765, and was 
succeeded by his son Joseph II., who the year before had been 
elected King of the Romans. By the first partition of Poland 
(1772) Austria acquired Galicia and Lodomeria; and in 1777, 
Bukowina was ceded by the Porte. Maria Theresa died 
29th November, 1780, at which time the Monarchy comprised 
235,500 square miles, with a population of about 24,000,000, 
and a public debt of 16,000,000/. 

The Emperor Joseph II., who had been joint regent of the 
hereditary states with his mother during her life-time, now 
became sole ruler, and gave full scope to his zeal for reform. 


He sought to establish a system of central government and 
uniformity of legislation throughout his dominions ; gave free- 
dom of worship and civil rights to Protestants ; extended 
toleration to the Jews ; abolished numerous convents and 
monasteries ; dismantled various fortresses ; and revised and 
improved the system of education. His zeal for reform excited 
the opposition of those who were attached to the old state of 
things, and the energy with which he sought to Germanize 
every thing without regard to other nationalities, created great 
dissatisfaction in Hungary and the Netherlands. At length, in 

1789, the people of the Netherlands broke out into open revolt, 
and this, together with an unsuccessful war in which he had 
been engaged against the Turks, is believed to have so preyed 
upon his over-sensitive mind, as to have caused his death in 

1790. He was succeeded by his brother, Leopold, Grand Duke 
of Tuscany, who, by his moderation and firmness, succeeded in 
quelling the insurrection in the Netherlands, and in restoring 
peace to the country. He also made peace with the Porte. 
The misfortunes of his sister Maria Antoinette, and her hus- 
band Louis XVI. of France, led him to enter into an alliance 
with Prussia against the French Revolutionists, but he died 
before the war broke out (1st March, 1792). He was succeeded 
by his son Francis II., who had hardly ascended the throne, 
when he found himself involved in a war with France. This 
was prosecuted for some time with varying success, but at 
length a series of disasters overtook the allies, and in the 
beginning of 1795 Prussia concluded peace with the French 
Republic. The war was now carried on with redoubled vigour 
against Austria ; the young general, Napoleon Bonaparte, by a 
series of brilliant exploits, made himself master of the whole of 
Lombardy ; and at length peace was concluded at Campo 
Formio, 17th October, 1797, Austria giving up Lombardy and 
the Netherlands, and receiving as compensation the larger part 
of the territory of Venice. Two years previous to this she 'had 
received W. Galicia on the third division of Poland. 

Inthebeginningof 1 799, Francis having entered into an alliance 


with Russia and England, renewed the war against France, but 
after suffering severe losses, was obliged to agree to terms of 
peace, which was concluded at Luneville, 9th February, 1801. 
In 1804, after Napoleon had assumed the title of Emperor of 
France, Francis took for himself and his successors that of 
Emperor of Austria. The war was renewed in 1805, and 
Napoleon, after a series of successes, entered Vienna, and sub- 
sequently defeated the allies at Austerlitz. By the peace of 
Pressburg (26th December, 1805), Austria lost Tyrol, Vorarl- 
berg, Venice and other possessions, amounting in all to about 
28,000 square miles, and a population estimated at 3,000,000. 
The formation of the Confederation of the Rhine was designed 
by Napoleon for the purpose of weakening the power of Ger- 
many, and the Emperor Francis, yielding to what he could 
not prevent, renounced the imperial throne, which his family 
had occupied for nearly 500 years, and declared himself the 
first Emperor of Austria. Francis now mude every effort to 
strengthen and improve his army, and increase his military re- 
sources ; and in 1809 entered on a new war with France, aided 
only by England. The capital was again taken by the enemy, 
and in its neighbourhood were fought two of the most glorious 
battles in the world's history, Aspern and Wagram, the French 
being commanded by Napoleon, the Austrians by Archduke 
Charles. " The campaign of Aspern and Wagram/' says Sir 
A. Alison, "is the most glorious in the Austrian annals— one 
of the most memorable examples of patriotic resistance recorded 

in the history of the world Austria is the only state 

recorded in history, which (without the aid of a rigorous climate 
like Moscow), fought two desperate battles in defence of its 
independence, after its capital had fallen." {History of Europe). 
By the peace of Vienna (1809), Austria lost some of her finest 
provinces, Salzburg with Berchtesgaden, the Innviertel, Car- 
niola with Gorz, Trieste, the circle of Villach, the greater part of 
Croatia, Istria, W. Galicia, and a part of E. Galicia, in all about 
42,000 square miles of territory, and 3,500,000 inhabitants. 
On nth March, 1810, the marriage of Napoleon to Maria 


Louisa, daughter of the emperor, was celebrated with great 
pomp at Vienna. In 1812 Austria was obliged to enter into 
an alliance with France against Russia, and to furnish an 
auxiliary force of 30,000 men for the invasion of that country. 
The disastrous result of this expedition induced Prussia to join 
with Russia, and declare war against France (17th March, 1813). 
At first Austria held aloof from this quarrel, notwithstanding 
the endeavours of both the contending parties to win her over 
to their side. At length she declared for the allies, and on 
12th August, 181 3, pronounced war against France. The 
battle of Dresden was fought on 28th August, that of Leipsic 
on 1 6th and 18th October, and the allies entered Paris on 
31st March, 18 14. By the peace of Paris Austria received the 
portion of Italy which afterwards formed the Lombardo-Vene- 
tian kingdom, and those portions of her hereditary territories 
which she had previously lost, together with Dalmatia. The 
Congress of Vienna in 181 5, and the treaty with Bavaria in 
1 81 6, gave Austria about 3200 square miles of additional 
territory, and otherwise improved its position by making it 
3 more compact, and adding to its commercial facilities. 

Austria now exercised an important influence in the affairs 
of Europe, and particularly in those of the German Confedera- 
tion ; and this influence was directed to the suppression of free 
institutions, and almost every form of liberty among the people. 
In Austria itself this system was strictly carried out under 
the direction of Metternich. A strict censorship of the press 
was established, and a system of secret police organized to 
observe and report what was said and done by the people in 
private. In the construction of the German Confederation, 
she used her influence to suppress the popular voice in all 
matters of government ; her armies were employed in quelling 
the popular insurrections in Naples and Piedmont in 1822 ; 
and by diplomacy she aided in the suppression of the popular 
movement in Spain in 1823. During the insurrection in 
Greece the influence of Austria was exerted against it ; and 
when it was established as a kingdom, under the protection of 


England, France, and Russia, she kept aloof. When, however, 
Russia invaded Turkey in 1828, Austria joined with England 
in interfering to prevent the fall of Constantinople, and in 
bringing about peace. The emperor died 2nd March, 1835, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son Ferdinand L, an amiable 
but weak-minded prince, who left the government very much 
in the hands of his prime minister, Metternich. An insurrec- 
tion in Galicia afforded Austria an excuse for annexing the 
small republic of Cracow, and thus extinguishing the last 
remnant of Polish independence. 

The French revolution of 1848, which convulsed almost the 
whole of continental Europe, caused the Austrian empire to 
totter to its foundations. The insurrection first broke out in 
Vienna (13th March), when the populace, headed by the 
students, made their way into the imperial palace, and demanded 
a new constitution, and the dismissal of the present ministers. 
Metternich resigned, a new ministry was formed, and other 
measures taken to allay the disturbance, but without success ; 
and on 17th May, the emperor and court secretly quitted the 
palace and fled to Innsbruck. In Italy a general rising took 
place throughout Lombardy and Venice, and the King of 
Sardinia took part with the insurgents. In Bohemia also the 
insurrectionary spirit manifested itself and broke out into open 
rebellion in Prague. The city was bombarded and taken, and 
the ringleaders dispersed or taken prisoners. In Hungary, 
the National Diet passed measures in favour of a responsible 
ministry, a perfect equality of civil rights, and the abolition 
of the privileges of the nobles, 1 religious toleration, the forma- 
tion of a national guard, and abolition of the censorship of the 
press. The emperor gave his assent to these measures ; but 
there was a strong party, chiefly Slavs, in favour of the imperial 
government, and Jellachich, the ban of Croatia, at the head of 

1 The nobles represent the original free conquerors of the land, and prior 
to 1848 enjoyed many important privileges. They enjoyed immunity from 
taxation and military conscription, and had exclusive possession of the 
freehold land. No degree of poverty or ignorance, nothing short of actual 
proved crime, could disfranchise a noble. 

204 A US TRIA - HUNG A R Y. 

an army of Croats, entered the country to put down the Magyars, 
secretly encouraged thereto by the government. A committee 
of safety was organized, and Kossuth elected president. When 
the garrison in Vienna left that city to fight against the Hun- 
garians, the inhabitants rose up in arms, stormed the arsenal, 
and murdered the war minister. The emperor, who had 
returned to Vienna, now fled to Olmiitz. The people of the 
capital put themselves under the command of General Bern, 
and prepared to resist the impending attack of the army. This 
commenced on the 28th of October, and after a stout resistance 
of three days the city was taken. The Emperor Ferdinand 
was induced to abdicate the throne on 2nd December, and his 
brother, Francis Charles, who was his legal successor, having 
renounced his right in favour of his son, the latter was pro- 
claimed emperor under the title of Francis Joseph I. The 
war in Hungary continued, and for a time the Hungarians were 
successful, but a Russian army being brought against them, 
they were unable to contend against greatly superior numbers, 
and after a gallant resistance, and being beaten in several 
engagements, their general, Gorgei, surrendered on 1 3th August, 
1849. Hungary was now treated as a conquered country, and 
the greatest cruelties were practised against the people by the 
Austrian General Haynau. In the meantime the insurrection 
in Italy had been suppressed, and the King of Sardinia, after 
being beaten at Novara (23rd March), abdicated in favour of 
his son, Victor Emmanuel. 

Austria now made strenuous efforts to develope the resources 
of the country by encouraging agriculture, industry, and com- 
merce. The land was freed from feudal burdens, taxes were 
removed, new roads formed, railways made, commercial treaties 
entered into with foreign powers, and the like. The liberal 
concessions, however, that had been extorted from the govern- 
ment were rapidly disappearing ; a rigorous system of military 
rule was introduced ; the censorship of the press was again in 
operation ; and the influence of the clergy and Jesuits 
re-established. Sardinia had frequently remonstrated with 


Austria concerning her policy in Italy, but without success, and 
at length war was declared in 1859. France took part with 
Sardinia, and marched an army into Italy. The battle of 
Magenta was fought on 4th June, and that of Solferino on 
24th June, in both of which the Austrians were defeated. An 
armistice followed, and subsequently a peace was concluded 
at Zurich on 10th November, by which Austria gave up Lom- 
bardy, except the fortresses of Mantua and Peschiera. 

The emperor now saw the necessity of establishing his 
government upon a more liberal footing ; and a new constitu- 
tion was promulgated, admitting the co-operation of the 
Reichsrath in all matters relating to the promulgation, altera- 
tion, or abolition of the laws ; the Reichsrath was declared to 
consist of two bodies — a house of peers, and a house of depu- 
ties, and the functions of each were defined. On 1st May, 
1 86 1, the New Reichsrath was formally opened by the emperor, 
but Hungary, Croatia, Slavonia, and Transylvania declined to 
send representatives, claiming a constitution distinct from the 

In 1864 Austria joined Prussia in making war upon Den- 
mark, on account of the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, and 
Lauenburg. Scarcely had they attained their object, when 
they went to war with each other over the spoil. On 7th June, 
1866, the Prussian troops entered Holstein, and compelled the 
Austrians to retire, which they did without bloodshed. 
Before this Prussia had secured Victor Emmanuel as an ally, 
by promising him Venetia. On the 16th of June the Prussians 
entered Saxony, and marched upon Dresden, the Saxon army 
retiring to join the Austrians. Various engagements took 
place, in which the Austrians were worsted, partly owing to the 
deadly execution effected by the needle-gun, then a new 
weapon, with which the Prussian infantry were armed. The 
final struggle took place at Sadowa or Koniggratz, when the 
Austrians were defeated with great slaughter on the 3rd of 
July, and on the 26th of the same month preliminaries 
of peace were signed at Nikolsburg. The treaty was con- 


eluded at Prague on 23rd August, by which Austria gave 
up Venetia, Mantua, &c, to Italy; withdrew all claim to 
the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig; consented to the 
dissolution of the German Confederation, and the formation 
of a new confederation in which she should have no part ; and 
agreed to pay a war indemnity of 6,000,000/., less 3,000,000/. 
allowed her on account of the duchies. With the loss of 
Lombardo-Venetia (in 1859 and 1866), Austria was deprived of 
upwards of 17,500 square miles of territory, and over 5,000,000 
of inhabitants. 

The emperor, having obtained peace, now turned his atten- 
tion to home affairs. Hungary was still in a very dissatisfied state, 
and clamorous for self-government ; and at length in the begin- 
ning of 1867 the constitution of 1848 was restored to her, and a 
ministry was formed. In opening the Reichsrath on 22nd May, 
the emperor said, " To-day we are about to establish a work 
of peace and of concord. Let us throw a veil of forgetfulness 
over the immediate past, which has inflicted deep wounds 
upon the empire. Let us lay to heart the lessons which it 
leaves behind ; but let us derive, with unshaken courage, new 
strength, and the resolve to secure to the empire peace and 
power." On June 8th, the emperor and empress were crowned 
king and queen of Hungary at Pesth, amid great public re- 
joicings, on which occasion full pardon was given for all past 
political offences, and liberty to return to all offenders residing 
in foreign countries. Many important and liberal measures 
were discussed and passed in the Reichsrath, several of which 
were directed to limiting the power of the clergy, and establish- 
ing equality among the professors of different creeds. In 
March, 1873, a law was passed taking the election of 
members of the Reichsrath out of the hands of the provincial 
diets, and transferring it to the general body of the electors in 
the several provinces, thus substituting direct for indirect elec- 
tion. On 1 st May, a great exhibition of the industries of all 
nations was opened at Vienna, and attracted an immense con- 
course of people, among whom were the Prince of Wales, the 


Czar of Russia, the Emperor of Germany, the King of Italy, 
and the Shah of Persia. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the 
emperor's accession to the throne was celebrated with great 
rejoicings on 2nd December, 1873, in Vienna and throughout 
the Monarchy. In 1874 the Concordat entered into with the 
Pope in 1855, extending the power of the clergy, was abolished, 
and measures were introduced greatly restricting the power 
of the Church. By the treaty of Berlin, 13th July, 1878, the 
small territory of Spica, having an area of 13 square miles, 
and a population of about 2000, was separated from Turkey, 
and incorporated with Dalmatia. It also stipulated that " the 
provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be occupied and 
administered by Austria-Hungary," and accordingly the 
government has entered upon the occupation of these provinces, 
and established administrators in them. On the 22nd of April, 
1879, the silver wedding of the emperor and empress was cele- 
brated, and the rejoicings that took place among all classes of 
the people and in all parts of the Monarchy were so enthu- 
siastic and spontaneous that no doubt could be felt as to the 
fervent loyalty with which the people of Austria-Hungary 
regarded their sovereign. In October of that year the Czech 
representatives, for the first time after 14 years' absence, took 
their seats in the Reichsrath, an indication that they are 
becoming more reconciled to the government, though they 
still reserve their claims to a constitution of their own like 

We cannot better conclude the history, and with it this brief 
sketch of Austria-Hungary, than by an extract from a Report 
on the commercial and industrial progress of the country, pre- 
pared at the time of the Exhibition in 1873, anc * which clearly 
and forcibly contrasts the old and the new state of things. " The 
year 1848 parts old from new Austria. The former, the abso- 
lutely governed state, whose territory, barred to the foreign world 
by high duties, prohibitions of imports and exports, a trouble- 
some passport system, and an anxiously-watched censorship, and 
traversed by customs frontiers within its own borders, fell to 


pieces, which, in spite of the great and radical reforms of Maria 
Theresa and Joseph, possessed no bond of organic connexion 
among their political and economical institutions. In the 
majority of the provinces the peasant population were degraded 
to a position that bordered on serfdom. Labour was tram- 
melled by the privileges owned by guilds ; education pitifully 
neglected ; intellectual life paralyzed ; literature and art, in 
their inability to evade the restraint of an executive hostile to 
thought, or to contract their energy to the representation of 
the insignificant, were devoid of any influence. Inconsequence 
of all this, the resource of capital was very small, the power 
of independence was stifled, and self-reliance supplanted by 
blind idolatry of the foreigner. New Austria, as the state after 
its changes in 1848 was rightly characterized .... appears in 
spite of the shortness of the time since elapsed as a new world. 
Henceforth a constant member of the international trading 
community, in lively commercial intercourse with the rest, 
Austria has freed her peasant population from the traditional 
burdens of feudalism, and her working industry from its tram- 
mels ; while a system of education, worthy of a constitutional 
state, is bringing light to the lowest strata of society. The. 
press is^displaying its instructive and educational, deciding and 
guiding power ; finally, the intelligent cultivation of the rich 
capabilities of the soil, as a sum of all the above, gives extra- 
ordinary strength to the power of raising capital." 


Mt. and Mts. stand for Mountain and Mountains, L. for Lake, R., River, T., Town. 

Abrudbanya T., 179. 

Adelsberg Grotto or Cavern, 10, 
128, 129. 

Adigo R„ 18, 25, 135, 136. 

Ages of population, 36. 

Agram T., 185, 186. 

Agriculture, persons engaged in, 70 ; 
arable land, ib. ; principal crops, 
71 ; estimated produce, 72 ; horses, 
73; cattle, 74; sheep, &c, 75; 
schools of, 67. 

Aix la Chapelle, peace of, 198. 

Albert, dukes I., II., III., IV., 
V., 193. 

Alps, 4, 5, 29, 135 ; geology of, 16 ; 
Central Range, 6, 7, 16, no, 123, 
126, 135 ; Northern Range, 6, 7, 
16, no, 118, 120, 123, 135; 
Southern Range, 6, *], 16, 123, 
126, 128, 130, 135 ; Transyl- 
vanian, 178. 

Alsace acquired by France, 196. 

Altenburg, German, 27. 

Aluta R., 23, 178. 

Animal kingdom, 31. 

Arable land, 70, 71. 

Aranyos R., 178, 179. 

Army, 104 ; liability to serve in, ib. ; 
standing army, 105 ; reserve, ib. ; 
landwehr, ib. ; ersatz-reserve, ib. ; 
landsturm, ib. ; marines, ib. ; total 
strength of army, 106 ; expendi- 
ture for, 107. 

Arpad, duke, 172 ; dynasty, ib. 

Art schools, Fine, 68. 
Aspern, battle of, 201. 
Asses, number of, 74. 
Atter L., 26, 118. 

Aurea Bulla, 172. 

Aurelius Marcus, 191. 

Auschwitz and Zator, Duchies of, 1 54. 

Ausser T., 27. 

Austerlitz, battle of, 201. 

Austria, Empire of, 33, 34, 36, 37, 
38, 39 et passim ; Margraviate of, 

Austria- Hungary — name, position, 
extent, 1 ; boundaries, 2; divi- 
sions, 3 ; physical features, moun- 
tains, 4 ; plains, 14 ; geology, 16 ; 
minerals, 17 ; rivers, 18 ; lakes, 
26 ; mineral springs, 27 ; climate, 
28 ; flora, 30 ; fauna, 31 ; popu- 
lation, 33 ; races, 40 ; languages 
and literatures, 51 ; religion, 58 ; 
education, 62 ; agriculture, 70 ; 
mining, 77 ; manufactures, 81 ; 
means of communication, 91 ; 
trade and commerce, 93 ; banks, 
97 ; post-office, 98 ; government, 
100 ; army and navy, 104 ; 
finance, 106 ; history, 191 ; old 
and new contrasted, 207. 

Austria Lower province, 30, 109. 

Austria Upper province, 17, 117. 

Austrian Lloyd's Co., 132, 133. 

Austrian Steam Ship Co., 93. 

Avari, 192. 

Babia-gora, Mt., 13. 

Baczer or Francis Canal, 23, 93. 

Baden T., 27. 

Bahar Mt., 14. 

Bajuvarii, 192. 

Bakony Forest, 167. 

Balaton or Piatt en L., 26, 168. 


Banat of Hungary, 169. 

Banks, number, capital, and names 

of principal, 97 ; savings, ib. 
Barley, 71 ; estimated produce of, 

Beer, 87. 

Bees, 76, 149, 170. 
Beet-root, 73, 141. 
Bega R., 23; Canal, 23, 93. 
Belgrade, peace of, 197. 
Beraun R., 140. 
Berlin treaty, 1, 189, 207. 
Beskides Mts., 12, 148, 153, 155. 
Biela R., 153. 
Bilin T., 27, 141. 
Births, average number of, 38. 
Bistritzor Bistritza R., 23, 160. 
Blind, number of, 37 ; schools for, 

Bodrog R., 23. 
Bohemia, 11, 139, 143, 193, 194, 

195, 196, 198, 203, 207. 
Bohemia-Moravian Mts., 11, 140, 

148. , 
Bohemian Forest Mts., 10, 16, 140. 
Bohemians, see Czechs. 
Boii, 143. 

Books, number printed, 58. 
Boots and shoes, 86. 
Bosna R., 188. 
Bosna-Serai T., 189. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, I, 94 //., 

187, 189, 207. 
Brahe, Tycho, 145. 
Brandy, 88, 157. 
Breitenfeld, battle of, 195. 
Brenner Pass, 6, 7, 137. 
Brenta R., 136. 
Breslau, battle of, 199 ; peace of, 

Brody T., 94 and u., 157, 159. 
Briinn T., 148, 149, 150. 
Buccari, 94. 

Buda or Ofen, 27, 168, 173. 
Buda-Pesth, 99, 173. 
Budget, see Finance. 
Budweis T., 147. 
BugR., 24, 155. 
Bukowina, Duchy of, 160, 199. 

Cabbage, 72. 

Calvinist church, 5*!, 59, 60. 

Campo Formio, peace of, 200. 

Canals, 93. 

Canin Mt., 130. 

Capo d'Istria, 131. 

Carinthia, Duchy of, 126. 

Carlopago, 94. 

Carlo vitz, peace of, 197. 

Carnic Alps, 9, 126, 167, 182, 183. 

Carniola, Duchy of, 128. 

Carpathian Highlands, Hungarian, 
12; Waldgebirge, 13, 155. 

Carpathians, 4, 12, 29, 155, 160, 
166 ; geology, 16 ; Little, 12, 
148; Transylvanian High, 178. 

Cattle, 74, 76 ; trade in, 95. 

Cettina R., 162. 

Charlemagne, 192. 

Charles V., 194; VI., 197; VII., 
198 ; II. of Spain, 197. 

Chemicals, manufacture of, 88. 

Chestnuts, 71, 131. 

Christian IV. of Sweden, 195. 

Cis-Leithania, 33, 34. 

Climate, 28. 

Clock and watch-making, 86. 

Coal, 80, 124, 127, 129, 142, 14?, 
153, 156, 170. 

Coffee imported, 95, 96. 

Collin, battle of, 199. 

Communication, means of, 91 ; 
roads, ib. ; railways, ib. ; river 
and canal navigation, 92 ; sea- 
ports, 93. 

Concordat, the Papal, 207. 

Confederation of the Rhine, the, 

Constance L., 26, 136. 

Copper, 79, 142, 170; manufacture, 


Corgnale grotto, 131. 

Corvinus Matthias, 173. 

Cotton manufacture, 82; imported 

and exported, 95, 96. 
Cracow, Grand Duchy of, 1 54 ; 

republic, 203 ; town, 99, 155, 

157, 159. 
Cretins, number of, 37. 
Croatia-Slavonia, kingdom of, 181 ; 

Diet of, 104 ; people, 41, 44, 46, 

47, 204 ; language, 55. 


Customs duties, 94, 107 ; terri- 
tories, 94. 

Czechs, 4, 44, 45, 143, 144, 207 ; 
language and literature, 53. 

Czernowitz T., 160, 161. 

Czaslau, battle of, 198. 

Dachstein Mt, 9, 118. 
Dalmatia, kingdom of, 94 and n., 

162, 202 ; exports and imports, 

Danube, 18, 109, 118, 136, 168; 

traffic on, 92. 
Daun, General, 199. 
Deaf mutes, number of, 37 ; schools 

for, 68. 
Deaths, average number of, 39. 
Debreczin T., 176. 
Debt, National, see National Debt. 
Delegations, the, 101. 
Denmark, war with (1864), 205. 
Deputies, House of, 102. 
Diet, National, of Hungary, 101, 

103, 203. 
Diets, Provincial, 103. 
Dinara Mt., 10, 162. 
Dinaric Alps, 10, 162, 188. 
Diocletian's palace, 165. 
Dniester R., 18, 23, 155, 160. 
Drave R., 21, 123, 126, 136, 168, 

Dreiherrenspitze, 9, 120. 
Dresden, battle of, 202 ; peace of, 

Drina R., 188. 
Dunajec R., 24, 155. 
Diirnstein Mt., no. 

Earthenware and porcelain, S8. 
Education, progress of since 1848, 

62 ; see Schools. 
Eger R., 25, 140, 168 ; T., 147. 
Egypt, trade with, 96. 
Eipel R., 168. 
Eisack R., 26, 136. 
Eisthaler Thurm Mt., 13. 
Elbe R., 18, 25 ; traffic on, 93. 
Elbgebirge, 16. 
England and Austria, 198, 199, 

201, 203; see United Kingdom. 
Enns R., 21, no, 118, 121, 124. 

Erlaf R., no. 

Erzgebirge, 10, 16, 140 ; Transyl- 

vanian, 178. 
Ersatz-reserve, 105. 
Essek T., 185, 186. 
Esterhazy Gallery, the, 173. 
Eugene, Prince, 197. 
Exhibition of 1873, 117. 
Exports, value of, and principal 

articles, 95, 96, 164. 

Fairs in Hungary, 171. 

Fatragebirge, 13. 

Fauna, 31. 

Ferdinand I. of Germany, 144, 194 ; 
II., 195 ; III., 196; I. of Aus- 
tria, 203, 204. 

Finance 106 ; revenue and expen- 
diture of monarchy, 107 ; of 
Austria, ib. ; of Hungary, 108 ; 
national debt, ib. 

P'iume T., 93,94,96, 183, 185, 186. 

Flax and hemp, 71, 62 ; manu- 
facture, 83, 142, 156. 

Flora, 30. 

Flour, value of, exported, 95, 96. 

Forests, 30, 70, 71, "]% 188. 

France, trade with, 96 ; wars with, 
196, 197, 198, 200, 20T, 202, 205. 

Francis I., 198, 199; II., 200, 203. 

Francis Joseph I., 204 — 207. 

Franzensbad T. , 11, 27, 141, 

Franzens Canal, 23. 

Frederic II., 192; III., 193; Elec- 
tor Palatine, 195 ; the Great of 
Prussia, 198, 199. 

Friulians, 50 ; language of, 56. 

Fruits, 30, 71, 73, 136, 163, 169, 184. 

Flinfkirchen, 167, 170. 

Fiired T., 27, 168. 

Furniture, articles of, made, 89. 

Gablonz T., 143. 
Galicia, kingdom of, 154, 199, 200. 
Game, 31, 77. 
Gardens and meadows, 70. 
Gastein, 27, 121. 
Gerlsdorfer Spitze, 13. 
German Confederation, the, 202, 
206; language 51; literature, 52. 
Germans, 41, 42. 

P 2 



Germany, South, trade with, 94, 95. 

Haynau, General, 204. 

Gesenke Mts., 148, 153. 

Hemp, 71, 72. 

Gipsies, 50, 171, 180. 

Henry I., Margrave, 192. 

Glass, manufacture of, &6, 143 ; 

Hercynian Mts., 4, 10. 

value of exported, 95. 

Hermannstadt T. , 178, 181. 

Gleichenberg T. , 27, 124. 

Hernad R., 23, 168. 

Gloves, manufacture of, 87. 

Herzegovina, see Bosnia. 

Goats, 75, 163. 

History, 191. 

Gold, 78, 161, 170, 179; gold and 

Hochkirch, battle of, 199. 

silver articles, 86. 

Hops, 72, 141. 

Golden Bull, see Aurea Bulla. 

Horses, 73, 179. 

Goller Mt., IIO; R., ib. 

Hubertsburg, peace of, 199. 

Gorgei, General, 204. 

Hungarian nobles, 203 n. 

Gorz T., 134. 

Hungary, kingdom of, 33, 34 

, 36, 

Gorz and Gradisca, county of, 130. 

37, 38, 39, 166, 193, 194, 


Government, 100 ; emperor and 

196, 197, 198, 200, 203, 


king, ib. ; executive and legis- 

206, et passim. 

lative power, ib. ; duality of, IOI ; 

Hunyady, John, 172, 177. 

delegations, ib. ; Reichsrath, 102 ; 

Huss, John, 53, 144. 

provincial diets, 103 ; Hungarian 

Reichstag or national diet, ib. 

Idria R., 131. 

Grain crops, principal, 31 ; value 

IglauT., 151. 

of, 72 ; imported and exported, 95. 

Ill R., 25, 136. 

Gran R., 22, 168; T., 27. 

Imports, value of, 95, 96 ; principal 

Gratz T., 125. 

articles, ib. 

Gravosa T., 96. 

Industrial and trade schools, 64. 

Great Rad Mt, 11. 

Inn R.. 20, 118, 135, 136. 

Greece, trade with, 96. 

Innsbruck T., 136, 138. 

Greek Catholic Church, 58, 59, 60. 

Insane, number of, 37. 

Greek Oriental Church, 58, 59, 61. 

Insurrection of 1848, 203. 

Grintouc Mt., 128. 

Ips, see Ybbs. 

Grossglockner Mt., 8, 9, 126. 

Ipsfeld, no. 

Gross Venediger Mt., 9, 120. 

Iron, 79, 124, 127, 129, 142, 


Grosswardein T., 168, 177. 

153, 170; manufactures, 85, 


Gurk R., 22, 126, 128; plain, ib. 

127, 143- 

Gustavus Adolphus, 195, 196. 

Iron Gate, the, 19, 20. 

Gymnasia, 64; real, ib. ; under, ib. ; 

Ischl T., 27. 

subjects taught in, ib. 

Isar R., 136. 
Iser R., 140. 

Habsburg or Hapsburg dynasty, 

Isonzo R., 26, 131. 


Isper R., no; plain, ib. 

Habsburg-Lothringen or Hapsburg- 

Istria, 94 and ;*., 130, 

Lorraine, house of, 100, 197. 

Italian language, 56 ; war of 1 


Haydn, the composer, 122. 


Haida T., 143. 

Italians, 41, 49. 

HallT., 27. 

Italy, trade with, 95, 96. 

HalleinT., 121, 

Halstadter L., 26, 1 18. 

Jablunka Pass, 12, 153. 

Hanna, district of, 149, 152. 

Jasomirgott, Henry, 192. 

Hapsburg, see Habsburg. 

Javornik Mt., 12. 

llargitta Mts., 14. 

Jellachich, ban of Croatia, 203. 



Jerome of Prague, 144. 
Jewish religion, 58, 59, 62. 
Jews, 50, 157. 
Joint-stock companies, 98. 
Joseph I., 197 ; II., 199. 
Julian Alps, 9. 
Jungholz, 94. 

Kahlengebirge, no. 
Kamp R., no; valley, ib. 
Kapella, Great and Little, Mts., 182. 
Kara, Mustapha, 197. 
Karawank Mts., 126, 128. 
Karlsbad T., II, 27, 141. 
^Carst, the, 9, 128, 131, 183. 
Kerka R., 162. 
Kindergarten schools, 64. 
Klagenfurt T., 127. 
Klausenburg, T., 180. 
Knighthood, orders of, 100. 
Kokel, R., 178, 179. 
Koniggratz, battle of, 205. 
Kbros R., 23, 168. 
Kossuth, 204. 
Kremnitz T., 170. 
Krems R., no; basin, ib. 
Krimmler Ache R. , 120, 121. 
KronstadtT., 180. 
Kulpa R., 22, 183. 
Kunersdorf, battle of, 199. 

Ladins, 50 ; language, 56. 

Ladislaus, Emperor, 144, 193. 

Lago di Garda, 26, 136. 

Lahatschowitz T., 27. 

Laibach R., 22, 128, 129; T., 129, 
130 ; plain, 128. 

Lainsitz R., no. 

Landsturm, 105, 106. 

Landwehr, 105, 106. 

Languages and literatures, 51 ; 
German, ib. ; Magyar, 52 ; 
Czech, 53 ; Polish, 54 ; Ruthe- 
nian, 55 ; Serbian, Croatian, 
and Slavonian, ib. ; Italian, 56 ; 
Rhaeto- Romanic, ib. ; Roumanic, 

57 * r, 

Lavant R., 120. 
Luxenburg, 117. 
Lead, 79, 127, 142. 
Leather manufacture, 86, 157. 

Lech R., 136 ; battle of, 195, 
Leeches, 184, 186. 
Leipsic, battle of, 202. 
Leitha R., 21, 33, 168. 
Leithagebirge, no, 167. 
LembergT.,99, 157, 158. 
Leopold I. of Babenberg, margrave, 

192 ; V. duke, ib. ; duke, 1 93 ; 

I. emperor, 196 ; II., 200. 
Leuthen, battle of, 199. 
Lewis I. king of Hungary, 1 72 ; 

II., 144, 173. 
Libraries, &c, 69. 
Liegnitz, battle of, 199. 
Lieser R., 126. 
Linz T., 119; plain, 19, 118. 
Lissa-hora Mt., 13. 
Literatures, see Languages. 
Lloyd's Company, Austrian, see 

Austrian Lloyd's Company. 
Lobau Island, 19. 
Lodomeria, 154, 199. 
Lombardo-Venetia, 33, 200, 202, 

203, 205, 206. 
Lomnitza R., 155. 
Lomnitzer Spitze, 13. 
Lords, House of, 102. 
Lorraine or Lothringen, duke of, 

Lubeck, peace of, 195. 
Lueg Pass, 120. 
Luneville, peace of, 201. 
Lussin-piccolo T., 96. 
Lutheran Church, 58, 59, 60. 
Lutzen, battle of, 196. 

Magdalena grotto, 128. 

Magenta, battle of, 205. 

Magnates, house of, 104. 

Magyars, 41, 42, 172, 192 ; lan- 
guage and literature, 52. 

Maize, 71, 131 ; estimated annual 
produce, 72 ; quantity exported, 

Males, 33, 34; proportion of to 
females, 35. 

Mannhartsberg, no. 

Mantua T., 197. 

Manufactures, 81 ; persons engaged 
in, 82 ; value of, ib. ; cotton, ib. ; 
flax and hemp, 83 ; woollen, 84 ; 



silk, ib. ; iron and steel, 85 ; 
copper, ib. ; gold and si]ver 
articles, 86 ; scientific instru- 
ments, ib. ; musical instruments, 
ib. ; glass, ib. ; leather, ib. ; 
paper, 87 ; sugar, ib. ; tobacco, 
ib. ; beer, ib. ; brandy, 88 ; por- 
celain and earthenware, ib. ; 
chemicals, ib. ; candles and soap, 
89 ; wooden wares, 89. 

Maraschino, 163, 165. 

Marburg T., 126. 

March R., 22, no, 148, 168 ; feld, 
no, III. 

Marcomanni, 144, 19 1. 

Maria Theresa, 197, 198, 199. 

Marienbad, 27, 141. 

Marines, 105. 

Maritime district, the, 130. 

Maros R., 23, 168, 178, 179. 

Marriages, average number of, 38. 

Matthias, Emperor, 195. 

Matzelgebirge, 123. 

Maximilian I., 194 ; tomb of, 138 ; 
II., 194. 

Mazurian Hills, 155. 

Mehadia springs, 14, 27, 168. 

Metternich, Prince, 202, 203. 

Milan, 197. 

Military, 33 ; schools, 68; see Army. 

Military Frontier, the, 182, 184. 

Mills, corn, &c, 89. 

Millstadter L., 26, 126. 

Mincio R., 136. 

Mining, persons engaged in, 77 ; 
gold, 78 ; silver, ib. ; iron, 79 ; 
copper, ib. ; lead, ib. ; quick- 
silver, ib. ; tin, ib. ; zinc, ib. ; 
other metals, 80 ; coal, ib. ; salt, 
ib. ; other minerals, 81. 

Mohacs, battle of, 173. 

Moldau R., 25, 140. 

Moldava or Moldawa R., 23, 160. 

Moll R., 126. 

Mond L., 26, 118. 

Monetary crisis of 1873, 77 n. 

Moravia, Margraviate of, 148. 

Moravians, 44, 45. 

Morlaks, 164. 

Mozart, the composer, 122, 

Miihl R., 118. 

Mules, 74. 

Mur R., 21, 121, 123. 

Music schools, &c, 68. 
Musical instruments, 86. 

Nagy-Banha Mountains, 178. 
Nagy-Banya T., 170. 
Namiest T., 150. 
Naples, 197. 

Napoleon Bonaparte, 200, 201. 
Narenta R., 162, 188. 
National Debt, 108. 
National Diet, see Diet. 
Navigation, river and canal, 93 
Navy, 106, 107. 
Nepomuk, St. John of, 145. 
Netherlands, 197, 200. 
Neusiedler L., 26, 167, 168. 
Neutra R., 22. 
Newspapers, number of, 57. 
Nikolsburg, treaty of, 205. 
Noric Alps, 8, 120, 167. 
Norici, Noricum, 191. 
Normal schools, 68. 
Novara, battle of, 204. 
Novi-Bazar T., 190. 

Oats, 71; estimated produce of, 72. 

Occupations of people, 38. 

Oder R., 18, 24, 153. 

Odergebirge, 148. 

Oetscher Mt., no. 

Oetzthaler Ferner, 7. 

Ofen, see Buda. 

Olives, 71, 131, 163; oil of, 96. 

Olmiitz T., 152. 

Olsa R., 153. 

Oppa R., 24, 153. . 

Oravicza T., 170. 

Orien Mt, 162. 

Orphan Asylums, 64. 

Ortler Alps, 7 ; Spitze, ib., 135. 

Ossiaker L., 26, 126. 

Otto I., 192. 

Ottokar, 192. 

Pannonia, 191. 
Panslavic movement, 44. 
Paper-making, 87. 
Papuk Mt., 183. 



Purad T., 168. 

Prussia, trade with, 94, 95 ; 


Parenzo T., 96. 

with, 205. 

Passanovicz, peace of, 197. 

Pruth R., 23, 155, 160. 

Pasterze glacier, 8, 126. 

Piillna, 27, 141. 

Pasture-land, 70, 71. 

Pusterthal, 135. 

Peasant war in Hungary, 173. 

Pesth, 174 ; see also Buda-Pesth. 

QUADI, 191. 

Pellico, Silvio, 150. 

Quarnerian Islands, 130. 

Pianofortes, 86. 

Quicksilver, 79, 129, 179. 

PiatraMt, 14. 

Pietrosa Mt, 13. 

Raab R., 21, 124, 168. 

PiftjanT., 27. 

Races, 40; German, 41, 42; Mag- 

Pilsen T., 147. 

yar, 41, 42; Slav, 41, 44, 


Pinzgauer swamps, 120. 

46 ; Czech, 45 ; Ruthenian, 


Pirano, 96, 131, 134. 

Sloven or Wend, ib, ; Croat 


Plain, Croatia-Slavonian, 15 ; Gali- 

Serb, ib., 47 ; Roumanian or 

cian, 15, 17, 155; of Hungary 

Wallachian, 48 ; Italian, 


Great, 14, 19, 167; Little, 15, 19, 

Ladin, 50 ; Friulian, Jewish, 



other races, ib. 

Planina grotto, 128. 

Radautz, 161. 

Platten L., see Balaton. 

Ragusa, 166. 

Podhorce R., 24, 155. 

Railways, 91 ; traffic on, 


Podiebrad, George of, 144. 

receipts, expenses, capital, 


Podolian Highland, 155. 


PolaT., 93,. 9.6, 134. 

Rainfall, 29. 

Poland, partitions of, 199, 200. 

Rape-seed, 73. 

Poles, 41, 44, 46, 157 ; language 

Read and write, number able 


and literature of, 54. 


Poprad R., 24, 155. 

Real schools and gymnasia, 64 ; 


Population, 33, 34, density of, ib. ; 

jects taught in, 65. 

proportion of males to females, 

Reichenberg T., 142, 147. 

35 ; condition, 36 ; ages, ib. ; 

Reichsrath, 101, 102, 205, 


natives and foreigners, 37 ; occu- 


pations, 38; births, ib. ; marriages, 

Reichstag, see Diet, National. 

ib.; deaths, 39. 

Religion, 58 ; Roman Catholic, 

59 5 

Portore T., 194. 

Greek Catholic, 60; Protestant, 

Post-office statistics, 98. 

ib. ; Oriental Greek, 61 ; 


Potatoes, 71, 72, 141. 

tarian, ib. ; Jewish, 62. 

Poultry, 76. 

Representatives, House of, 104. 

Pragmatic Sanction, 100, 197. 

Resch en L. , 26. 

Prague, 99, 141, 144, 203 ; battle of, 

Revenue and Expenditure, see 


199; treaty of, 206. 


Prater island, 19; park, 117. 

Rhaetia, 191. 

Pressburg T., 176; peace of, 201. 

Rtuetian Alps, 7. 

Priel Great Mt., 118. 

Rhaeto- Romanic or Romanic 


Printing and lithographic establish- 

guage, 56. 

ments, 89. 

Rhine R., 18, 25, 136. 

Prossnitz T., 152. 

Riesenge Dirge, 11, 140. 

Protestant religion, 58, 59, 60. 

Riesenkoppe, see Schneekoppe. 

Provident Institutions, 98. 

Roads, length of, &c, 91. 

Provincial Diets, see Diets. 

Rohitsch T., 27, 124. 



Roman Catholic religion, 58, 59. 

Rossbach, battle of, 199. 

Roumania, trade with, 95. 

Roumanians or Wallachians, 44, 
48, 180; language of, 57. 

Rovigno T. 93, 96. 

Rudolf II., duke, 193 ; II. emperor, 

Rumburg T., 142. 

Russia, trade with, 95. 

Ruthenians, 41, 44, 46, 157; lan- 
guage and literature of, 55. 

Rye, 71 ; estimated produce, 72. 

Saala R., 120. 

Saddlery, 87. 

Sadowa, battle of, 205. 

Saidschitz springs, 141. 

Salt, 80, 124, 137, 156, 163, 170, 
179; monopoly, 107. 

Salzach R., 20, 120. 

Salzburg, Duchy of, 120; T., 121 ; 
Alps, 9. 

Salzkammergut, 81. 

San R., 24, 155. 

San Servolo grotto, 131. 

Sardinia, 197; king of, 203, 204. 

Save R., 21, 124, 128, 183, 188. 

Savings banks, statistics of, 97. 

Saxon Switzerland, 11, 25. 

Saxony, trade with, 94, 95. 

S chemnitz T., 170. 

Schmieda R., no. 

Schmollnitz T., 170. 

Schneeberg Mt., 9 (Lower Austria), 

Schneekoppe Mt., 1 1, 140. 

Schonbrunn palace, 117. 

School age, 62 ; attendance, 63. 

Schools, elementary, kindergarten, 
&c, 63 ; middle — gymnasia and 
real, 64 ; high — universities and 
technical, 65 ; special — theo- 
logical, law, commercial, naviga- 
tion, mining, manufactures, agri- 
culture, art, military, normal, &c. , 

Schopfel Mt., no. 

Schiitt, Great and Little islands, 19, 

Schwechat R., no. 

Scientific instruments, 86. 

Sdobba R., 131. 

Seaports, principal, 93. 

Sebenico T., 96, 165. 

Sedlitz, 27, 141. 

Semmering Pass, 9. 

Serbs, Serbians, or Servians, 41, 

44, 46, 47, 48 ; language of, 55. 
SeredR., 155. 
Sereth R., 23, 160, 161. 
Seven Years' War, 199. 
Sheep, 75, 149. 
Shipping, 93, 95. 
Sicily, 197. 

Sigismund, emperor, 144, 193. 
Silesia, Duchy of, 152, 198, 199. 

Silkworm, 76, 163, 170. 

Silk manufactures, 84 ; imported 
and exported, 95. 

Silver, 78, 142, 170, 179. 

Slavs, 41, 44, 45, 46. 

Slovaks, 44, 45. 

Slovens or Wends, 41, 44, 46 ; lan- 
guage of, 55. 

Sobieski, John, 197. 

Solferino, battle of, 205. 

S oilman, or Solyman Sultan, 194. 

Spalato T., 93, 96, 165. 

Spanish Succession, war of, 197. 

Spica, 207. 

Spieglitzer Schneeberg, 11. 

Steiner Alps, 128. 

Steinschonau, 143. 

Stelvio Pass, 8. 

Steyer, Steyr, or Steier T., 85, 

Strehl R., 178. 

Stry R., 24, 155. 

Styria, Duchy of, 122 ; Alps, 9. 

Suczawa R., 23, 160, 161. 

Sudetes Mts., 11, 16, 148. 

Sugar manufacture, 87, 157 ; ex- 
ported, 96. 

Sulzbach Alps, 123, 126, 128. 

Swine, 75 ; imported and exported, 

Switzerland, trade with, 95. 
Szamos R., 23, 168, 178, 179. 
Szarviz R.. 168. 
Szegedin T., 176. 
Szeklers, 180. 



Tannengebirge, 120. 

Tatra Mts., 13, 155. 

Tauern, Greater and Lesser, Mts., 

Taurisci, 191. 

Technical high schools, 66. 

Telegraph statistics, 98. 

Temes R., 23, 168. 

Temesvar T. , 177. 

Teplitz (Bohemia), II, 27, 141 
(Carniola), 129 (Hungary), 168. 

Terglou Mt., 9, 128. 

Thaya R., 22, no, 148. 

Theiss R., 22, 168/ 

Theological seminaries, 66. 

Thirty Years' War, 53, 195. 

Tilly, General, 195. 

Tin, 29. 

Tobacco, 72, 136, 169 ; export and 
import of, 96 ; revenue from 
monopoly, 107. 

Torgau, battle of, 199. 

Toys, manufacture of, 89. 

Trade and commerce, 93 ; persons 
engaged in, 94 ; internal, exter- 
nal, overland, by sea, ib. ; princi- 
pal countries with which carried 
on, ib. ; value of imports and ex- 
ports, and principal articles of, 
95 ; trading vessels entering and 
leaving the different ports, ib.\ 
value of imports and exports at 
different ports, 96 ; transit trade, 

Trade and manufacture, chambers 
of, 99; schools of, 67. 

Traissen R. , no. 

Transit trade, 96. 

Trans-Leithania, 33, 34. 

Transylvania, Grand Duchy of, 177, 

Transylvanian Alps, 14 ; Erzgebirge, 
ib.; Highlands, 13. 

Traun L., 21, 26, 118; R., 12, 118, 

Trenck, Baron, 150, 1 5 1. 

Trent T., 139. 

Trientiner Alps, 7. 

Trieste, 93, 94, 95, 96, 99, 130, 131, 

Troppau T., 154. 

Tulner Basin, 15, 19, no. 

Turkey, trade with, 95, 96. 

Turks, wars with the, 192, 194, 196, 

Turnips, 71. 
Tyrol and Vorarlberg, county of, 

I35> 201. 
Tyrolese, character of, 138. 

Unitarian Church, 58, 59, 61. 
United Kingdom, trade with, 95, 

96 ; see England. 
Universities. 65, 115. 
Unna R., 22, 183, 188. 
Untersberg, 121. 
Utrecht, peace of, 197. 
Uskoken Mountains, 128. 

Value of grain crops, 72 ; of other 
products of soil, 73 ; manufac- 
tures, 82 ; exports and imports, 


Veldes L., 129. 

Velebich Mts., 182. 

Venice, 200, 201, 206. 

Verbas R., 188. 

Vertesgebirge, 167. 

Vienna, 28, 85, 86, 99, 1 11- 11 7, 
io 4> I97» 201, 203, 204; Con- 
gress, 202 ; Exhibition of 1873, 
117, 206; peace of, 201; plain 
or basin, 15, 17, 19, 30, no. 

Viennese, character of, 117. 

Vindobona, 191. 

Vine, vineyards, 30, 70, 71, 73, no, 

Vistula R., 18, 24, 153, 155, 157 ; 
traffic on, 93. 

Vorarlberg, see Tyrol and Vorarl- 

Vorospatak, 179. 

Vrana L., 162. 

WAAG.R., 22, 168. 
Wagram, battle of, 201. 
Waidhofen on the Ybbs T., 85. 
Wallachians, see Roumanians. 
Wallenstein, General, 148, 196. 
Waller L., 26. 
Warasdiner Mts. , 182. 



Wechsel Mt., no, 123. 

Woollen manufactures, 84, 142, 

Welser Heath, 118. 

150, 151, 153; imported and ex- 

Wends, see Slovens. 

ported, 95. 

Wenzel IV., 144, 145. 

Worther L., 26, 126 

Westphalia, peace of, 196. 

Wurzner L., 129. 

Wheat, 71 ; estimated produce, 72, 

White Hill, battle of, 195. 

Ybbs or Ips R., no. 

Wieliczka, 80, 156. 

Wien R., no, 112, 113. 

Zalantha, 179. 

Wiener-Neustadt T., 117; canal, 

Zapolya, John, 173, 194. 

93> ii7. 

ZaraT., 93, 96, 163, 164. 

Wienerwald, no. 

Zator, see Auschwitz and Zator. 

Wiesbach-horn Mt., 9, 120. 

Zaya R., no. 

Wild animals, 31, 77. 

Zeller L., 121. 

Wines, 73, in, 131, 163, 169, 179, 

ZenggT., 94. 


Zermagna R., 162. 

Wippach R., 131. 

Zeyer R., 128. 

Wochiner L., 129. 

Zinc, 79, 127, 142. 

Wolfgang, St., L., 26, 1 18. 

Zirknitzer L. 129. 

Wood, value of, exported, 95. 

Zorndorf, battle of, 199. 

Wool, 76, 149, 153, 170; imported 

Zurich, peace of, 205. 

and exported, 95. 

Zwittau T., 105. 



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The Story of the Chevalier Bayard. By M. De BePsVILLE. 
De Joinville } s St. Louis, King of France. 

A 2 

Sampson Low i Marston> &* Co.'s 

The Bayard Series {continued) : — - 

The Essays of Abraham Cowley, including all his Prose Works. 

Abdallah ; or the Four Leaves. By Edouard Laboullaye. 

Table- Talk and Opinions of Napoleon Buonaparte. 

Vathek : An Oriental Romance. By William Beckford. 

The King and the Commons. A Selection of Cavalier and 
Puritan Songs. Edited by Prof. Morley. 

Words of Wellington : Maxims and Opinions of the Great 

Dr. Johnson's Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia. With Notes. 

Hazlitfs Round Table. With Biographical Introduction. 

The Religio Medici, Hydriotaphia, and the Letter to a Frietid. 
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Ballad Poetry of the Ajfections. By Robert Buchanan. 

Coleridge's Christabel, and other Imaginative Poems. With 
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Lord Chesterfield's Letters, Sentences, and Maxims. With 
Introduction by the Editor, and Essay on Chesterfield by M. DE Ste. - 
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Essays in Mosaic. By Thos. Ballantyne. 

My Uncle Toby ; his Story and his Friends. Edited by 
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Reflections ; or, Moral Sentences and Maxims of the Duke de 
la Rochefoucauld. 

Socrates: Memoirs for English Readers from Xenophorfs Memo- 
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Prince Alb erf s Golden Precepts, 

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Beumers 7 German Copybooks. In six gradations at ^d. each. 

Biart (Lucien). See "Adventures of a Young Naturalist," 
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List of Publications. 

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Bida. The Authorized Version of the Four Gospels, with the 

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Blue Banner {The); or, The Adventures of a Mussulman, a 
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Chant Book Companion to the Book of Co?nmon Prayer. Con- 
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English Catalogue of Books (The). Published during 1863 to 
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io Sampson Low. Marsfon. 6° Co.'s 

English Philosophers, continued : — 

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Austin. Mr. Harry Johnson, B.A., late Scholar of Queen's 

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Erema ; or, My Father's Sin. See Blackmore. 

Eton. See " Day of my Life,'' " Out of School," " About Some 

Evans (C.) Over the Hills and Far Away. By C. Evans. 

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A Strange Friendship. Crown 8vo, cloth, 5^. 

Z7 "AMPLY Pi-ay ers for Working Men. By the Author of 
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Let n Paradise ( The): A Plea for the Culture of Ferns. By F. G. 
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Fern World (The). By F. G. Heath. Illustrated by Twelve 

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Few (A) Hints on Proving Wills. Enlarged Edition, is. 

First Steps in Conversational French Grammar. ByF. Julien. 
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Five Years in Minnesota. By Maurice Farrar, M.A. 
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Flooding of the Sahara {The). See Mackenzie. 

Food for the People ; or, Lentils and other Vegetable Cookery. 
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List of Publications. i x 

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Footsteps of the Master. See Stowe (Mrs. Beecher). 

Forbidden Land (A) : Voyages to the Corea. By G. Oppert. 

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Franc {Maude Jeane). The following form one Series, small 

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Hall's Vineyard. 4s. 

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Friends and Foes in the Transkei : An Englishwoman's Experi- 
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Froissart (27ie Boy's). Selected from the Chronicles of Eng- 
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Funny Foreigners and Eccentric Englishmen. 16 coloured 
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Denmark and Iceland. 








t2 Sampson Low, Marsion, &* Co.'s 

SHAMES of Patience. See Cadogan. 

Gentle Life (Queen Edition). 2 vols, in 1, small 4to, \os. 6d. 


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A Reprint (with the exception of " Familiar Words" and "Other 
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The Gentle Life. Essays in aid of the Formation of Character 
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About in the World. Essays by Author of " The Gentle Life." 

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Like unto Christ. A New Translation of Thomas a Kempis' 
" De Imitatione Christi." 2nd Edition. 

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never seen." — Illustrated London News. 

Familiar Words. An Index Verborum, or Quotation Hand- 
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"The most extensive dictionary of quotation we have met with." — Notes and 

Essays by Montaigne. Edited and Annotated by the Author 
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The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia. Written by Sir Philip 
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The Gentle Life. 2nd Series, 8th Edition. 

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The Silent Hour: Essays, Original and Selected. By the 
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Half Length Portraits. Short Studies of Notable Persons. 

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Essays on English Writers, for the Self-improvement of 

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List of Publications. 1 3 

The Gentle Life Series {continued) : — 

Other People's Windows. By J. Hain Friswell. 3rd Edition. 

"The chapters are so lively in themselves, so mingled with shrewd views of 
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A Man's Thoughts. By J. Hain Friswell. 

German Primer. Being an Introduction to First Steps in 

German. By M. T. Preu. 2s. 6d. 
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Gilpin's Forest Scenery. Edited by F. G. Heath. Large 

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"Those who know Mr. Heath's Volumes on Ferns, as well as his 'Woodland 

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in the boudoir as well as in the library." — SaUirday Review. 

Gordon {J. E. H.). See " Four Lectures on Electric Induc- 
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Gouffe. The Royal Cookery Book. By Jules Gouffe ; trans- 
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Gouraud (Mdlle.) Four Gold Pieces. Numerous Illustrations. 

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Government of M. Thiers. By Jules Simon. Translated from 

the French. 2 vols., demy 8vo, cloth extra, 32J. 
Great Artists. See Biographies. 
Greek Grammar. See Waller. 
Guizofs History of France. Translated by Robert Black. 

Super-royal 8vo, very numerous Full-page and other Illustrations. In 
5 vols., cloth extra, gilt, each 2^s. 

" It supplies a want which has long been felt, and ought to be in the hands of all 
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Masson^s School Edition. The 

History of France from the Earliest Times to the Outbreak of the 
Revolution; abridged from the Translation by Robert Black, M. A., 
with Chronological Index, Historical and Genealogical Tables, &c. 
By Professor Gustave Masson, B.A., Assistant Master at Harrow 
School. With 24 full -page Portraits, and many other Illustrations. 
I vol,, demy 8vo, 600 pp., cloth extra, 10s, 6d. 

14 Sampson Low, Afarston, 6° Co.'s 

Guizot 's History of England. In 3 vols, of about 500 pp. each, 
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24s. each. 

" For luxury of typography, plainness of print, and beauty of illustration, these 
volumes, of which but one has as yet appeared in English, will hold their own 
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Guyon (Mde.) Life. By Upham. 6th Edition, crown 8vo, 6s. 
JLJANDBOOK. to the Charities of London. See Low's. 

of Embroidery ; which see. 

to the Principal Schools of England. See Practical. 

Half- Hours of Blind Man's Holiday ; or, Summer and Winter 

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Half Length Portraits. Short Studies of Notable Persons. 

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Hall (IV. W.) How to Live Long; or, 1408 Health Maxims, 

Physical, Mental, and Moral. By W. W. Hall, A.M., M.D. 

Small post 8vo, cloth, 2s. Second Edition. 

Hans Brinker ; or, the Silver Skates. See Dodge. 

Have La Vote? A Handy Book for the Use of the People, 

on the Qualifications conferring the Right of Voting at County and 
Borough Parliamentary Elections. With Forms and Notes. By 
T. H. Lewis, B.A., LL.B. Paper, 6d. 

Heart of Africa. Three Years' Travels and Adventures in the 
Unexplored Regions of Central Africa, from 1868 to 187 1. By Dr. 
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2 vols., crown 8vo, cloth, 15^. 

Heath {Francis George). See "Fern World," "Fern Paradise," 
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Heber's (Bishop) L Hast rated Edition of LLymns. With upwards 
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Morocco, iSs. 6d. and2U. An entirely New Edition. 

Hector Servadac. See Verne. 105-. 6d. and $s. 

Heir of Kilfinnan (The). New Story by W. H. G. Kingston, 

Author of " Snoe Shoes and Canoes,' ' " With Axe and Rifle," &c. 
With Illustrations. Cloth, gilt edges, *]s. 6d. 
History and Handbook of Photography. Translated from the 
French of Gaston Tissandier. Edited by J. Thomson. Imperial 
i6mo, over 300 pages, 70 Woodcuts, and Specimens of Prints by the 
best Permanent Processes. Second Edition, with an Appendix by 
the late Mr. Henry Fox Talbot. Cloth extra, 6s. 

List of Publications., 1 5 

History of a Crime {The) ; Deposition of an Eye-witness. By 
Victor Hugo. 4 vols., crown 8vo, \2s. Cheap Edition, 1 vol., 6s. 

— E?igland. See GuizoT. 

France. See Guizot. 

of Russia, ee Ram baud. 

Merchant Shipping. See Lindsay. 

United States. See Bryant. 

Ireland. Standish O'Grady. Vols. I. and II., 7^. 6d. 


American Literattcre. By M. C. Tyler. Vols. I. 

and II., 2 vols, 8vo, 24s. 
History and Principles of Weaving by Hand and by Power. With 
several hundred Illustrations. By Alfred Barlow. Royal 8vo, 
cloth extra, \l. 5J. Second Edition. 

Hitherto. By the Author of" The Gayworthys." New Edition, 
cloth extra, 3^. 6d. Also, in Rose Library, 2 vols., 2s. 

Home of the Eddas. By C. G. Lock. Demy 8vo, cloth, 16s. 

How to Live Long. See Hall. 

How to get Strong a?id how to Stay so. By William Blaikie. 

A Manual of Rational, Physical, Gymnastic, and other Exercises. 
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"Worthy of every one's attention, whether old or young." — Graphic. 

Hugo (Victor) "Ninety-Three" Illustrated. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

Toilers of the Sea. Crown 8vo. Illustrated, 6s. ; fancy 

boards, is. ; cloth, 2s. 6d. ; On large paper with all the original 
Illustrations, ioj-. 6ct. 

See " History of a Crime." 

Hundred Greatest Men (The). 8 vols., containing 15 to 20 
Portraits each, 2\s. each. See below. 

"Messrs. Sampson Low & Co. are about to issue an important 'International' 
work, entitled, 'THE HUNDRED GREATEST MEN;' being the Lives and 
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to form a Monthly Quarto Volume. The Introductions to the volumes are to be 
written by recognized authorities on the different subjects, the English contributors 
being Dean Stanley, Mr. Matthew Arnold, Mr. Froude, and Professor Max 
Muller: in Germany, Professor Helmholtz ; in France, MM. Taine and 
Renan ; and in America, Mr. Emerson. The Portraits are to be Reproductions 
from fine and rare Steel Engravings." — Academy. 

Hygiene and Public Health (A Treatise on). Edited by A. H. 
Buck, M.D. Illustrated by numerous Wood Engravings. In 2 
royal 8vo vols., cloth, one guinea each. 

Hymnal Companion to Book of Common Prayer. See 


16 Sampson Low y Marston, <5* Co.'s 

ILLUSTRATED Text-Books of Art-Education. A Series 
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J. Poynter, R. A., Director for Art, Science and Art Department. 

The first Volumes, large crown &vo, cloth, %s. 6d. each, will be issued in the 

following divisions : — 


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German, Flemish, and Dutch. | English and American. 


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Classic and Oriental. | Renaissance and Modern. 


Decoration in Colour. | Architectural Ornament. 

Illustrations of China and its People. By J. Thompson 
F.R. G.S. Four Volumes, imperial 4to, each 3/. 3^. 

In my Indian Garden. By Phil Robinson. With a Preface 
by Edwin Arnold, M. A., C.S.I., &c. Crown 8vo, limp cloth, y. 6d. 

Involuntary Voyage (An). Showing how a Frenchman who 
abhorred the Sea was most unwillingly and by a series of accidents 
driven round the World. Numerous Illustrations. Square crown 
8vo, cloth extra, *js. 6d. 

Irish Bar. Comprising Anecdotes, Bon-Mots, and Bio- 
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yACK and yill. By Miss Alcott. Small post 8vo, cloth, 
gilt edges, $s. 
Jacquemart (A.) History of the Ceramic Art. By Albert 
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1000 Marks and Monograms. Translated by Mrs. Bury Palliser, 
Super-royal 8vo, cloth extra, gilt edges, 2&r. 

Jimmy's Cruise in the Pinafore. See Alcott. 
TSAFIRLAND : A Ten Months' Campaign. By Frank N. 

-^ *■ Streatfield, Resident Magistrate in KafTraria, and Commandant 
of Native Levies during the Kaffir War of 1878. Crown 8vo, cloth 
extra, Js. 6d. 

Keble Autograph Birthday Book (The). Containing on each left- 
hand page the date and a selected verse from Keble's hymns. 
Imperial 8vo, with 12 Floral Chromos, ornamental binding, gilt edges, 
1 5 s. 

List of Publications. 1 7 

Khedives Egypt { The) ; or, The old House of Bondage under 
New Masters. By Edwin de Leon. Illustrated. Demy 8vo, 8s. 6d. 

King's Rifle (The): From the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean; 
Across Unknown Countries ; Discovery of the Great Zambesi Affluents, 
&c. By Major Serpa Pinto. With 24 full-page and about 100 
smaller Illustrations, 13 small Maps, and 1 large one. Demy 8vo. 

Kingston {W. H. G.). See " Snow-Shoes." 

Child of the Cavern. 

Two Supercargoes. 

With Axe and Rifle. 

Begum's Fortune. 

Heir of Kilfinnan. 

Dick Cheveley. 

T ADY Silverdatts Sweetheart. 6s. See Black. 

Lenten Meditations. In Two Series, each complete in itself. 
By the Rev. Claude Bosanquet, Author of " Blossoms from the 
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Lentils. See " Food for the People.'' 

Liesegang {Dr. Paul F.) A Manual of the Carbon Process of 
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Life and Letters of the Honourable Charles Sumner {The). 
2 vols., royal 8vo, cloth. Second Edition, 36*5-. 

Lindsay (W. S.) History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient 
Commerce. Over 150 Illustrations, Maps and Charts. In 4 vols., 
demy 8vo, cloth extra. Vols. 1 and 2, 21^. ; vols. 3 and 4, 24s. each. 

Lion Jack : a Story of Perilous Adventures amongst Wild Men 
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With Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth extra, price 6^. 

Little King ; or, the Taming of a Young Russian Count. By 

S. Blandy. 64 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, gilt edges, *]s. 6d. ; plainer 

binding, 5^ 
Little Mercy; or, For Better for Worse. By Maude Jeanne 

Franc, Author of "Marian," "Vermont Vale," &c, &c. Small 

post 8vo, cloth extra, 4^. Second Edition. 

Long {Col. C. Chaille) Central Africa. Naked Truths of 
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Lost Sir Massingberd. New Edition, crown 8vo, boards, col oured 

wrapper, 2s. 

1 8 Sampson Low, Mars ton, &> Co.'* 

Low's German Series — 

1. The Illustrated German Primer. Being the easiest introduction 

to the study of German for all beginners, is. 

2. The Children's own German Book. A Selection of Amusing 

and Instructive Stories in Prose. Edited by Dr. A. L. Meissner. 
Small post 8vo, cloth, is. 6d. 

3. The First German Reader, for Children from Ten to 

Fourteen. Edited by Dr. A. L. Meissner. Small post 8vo, 
cloth, is. 6d. 

4. The Second German Reader. Edited by Dr. A. L. Meissner. 

Small post 8vo, cloth, is. 6d. 

Buck/Lewi's Deutsche Prosa. Two Volumes, sold separately : — 

5. Schiller's Prosa. Containing Selections from the Prose Works 

of Schiller, with Notes for English Students, By Dr. Buchheim, 
Small post 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

6. Goethe's Prosa. Selections from the Prose Works of Goethe, 

with Notes for English Students. By Dr. Buchheim. Small 
post 8vo, 3-f. 6d. 

Low's International S:rles of Toy Books. 6d. each ; or 
Mounted on Linen, is. 

1. Little Fred and his Fidale, from Asbjornsen's "Norwegian 

Fairy Tales." 

2. The Lad and the North Wind, ditto. 

3. The Pancake, ditto. 

Low's Standard Library of Travel and Adventure. Crown 8vo, 
bound uniformly in cloth extra, price 7^. 6d. 

1. The Great Lone Land. By Major W. F. Butler, C.B. 

2. The Wild North Land. By Major W. F. Butler, C.B. 

3. How I found Living-stone. By H. M. Stanley. 

4. The Threshold of the Unknown Keg-ion. By C. R. Mark- 

ham. (4th Edition, with Additional Chapters, ioj. 6d.) 

5. A Whaling Cruise to Baffin's Bay and the Gulf of Boothia. 

By A. H. Markham. 

6. Campaigning on the Oxus. By J. A. MacGahan. 

7. Akim-foo : the History of a Failure. By Major W. F. 

Butler, C.B. 

8. Ocean to Ocean. By the Rev. George M. Grant. With 


9. Cruise of the Challenger. By W. J. J. Spry, R.N. 

10. Schweinfurth's Heart of Africa. 2 vols., i$s. 

11. Through the Dark Continent. By H. M. Stanley. I vol., 

12 s. 6d. 

List of Publicatio?is. 1 9 

Low's Standard Novels, Crown 8vo, 6s. each, cloth extra. 

My Lady Greensleeves. By Helen Mathers, Authoress of 
" Comin' through the Rye/' "Cherry Ripe," &c. 

Three Feathers. By William Black. 

A Daughter of Heth. 13th Edition. By W. Black. With 
Frontispiece by F. Walker, A.R. A. 

Kilmeny. A Novel. By W. BLACK. 

In Silk Attire. By W. Black. 

Lady Silverdale's Sweetheart. By W. Black. 

History of a Crime : The Story of the Coup d'Etat. By Victor 

Alice Lorraine. By R, D. Blackmore. 

Lorna Doone. By R. D. Blackmore. 8th Edition. 

Cradock Nowell. By R. D. Blackmore. 

Clara Vaug-han. By R. D. Blackmore. 

Cripps the Carrier. By R. D. Blackmore. 

Erema ; or l&y Father's Sin. By R. D. Blackmore. 

Innocent. By Mrs. Oliphant. Eight Illustrations. 

"Work. A Story of Experience. By Louisa M. Alcott. 'Illustra- 
tions. See also Rose Library. 

The Afg-han Knife. By R. A. Stern dale, Author of " Seonee." 

A French Heiress in her own Chateau. By the author of " One 
Only/' "Constantia," &c. Six Illustrations. 

Ninety-Three. By Victor Hugo. Numerous Illustrations. 

ULy Wife and I. By Mrs. Beecher Stowe. 

Wreck of the Grosvenor. By W. Clark Russell. 

Elinor Dryden. By Mrs. Macquoid. 

Diane. By Mrs. Macquoid. 

Pcgrannc People, Their Loves and Lives. By Mrs. Beecher 

A Golden Sorrow. By Mrs. Cashel Hoey. 

Low's Ha?idbook to the Charities of London, Edited and 
revised to date by C. Mackeson, F. S.S., Editoi of " A Guide to the 
Churches of London and its Suburbs," &c. is. 

IWJACGAHAN (J. A.) Campaigning on the Oxm, and the 
^ *-*- Fall of Khiva. With Map and numerous Illustrations, 4th Edition, 
small post 8vo, cloth extra, Js. 6d. 

Macgregor {John) " Rob Roy" on the Baltic. 3rd Edition, 
small post 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

A Thousand Miles in the u Rob Roy"* Canoe, nth 

Edition, small post 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

20 Sampson Low, Marston, &> Co.'s 

Macgregor {John) Description of the "Rob Roy" Canoe, with 
Plans, &c , is. 

The Voyage Alone in the Yawl "Rob Roy" New 

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boards, 2s. 6d. 

Mackenzie (D). The Flooding of the Sahara. By Donald 
Mackenzie. 8vo, cloth extra, with Illustrations, ios. 6d. 

M aequo id (Mrs.) Elinor Dry den. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. 

Diane. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

Magazine (Illustrated) for Yoimg People. See "St. Nicholas." 

Markham (C. R.) The Threshold of the Unknown Region. 
Crown 8vo, with Four Maps, 4th Edition. Cloth extra, ios. 6d. 

Maury (Co?nmander) Physical Geography of the Sea, and its 
Meteorology. Being a Reconstruction and Enlargement of his former 
Work, with Charts and Diagrams. New Edition, crown 8vo, 6s. 

Memoirs of Madame de Remusat, 1802 — 1 808. By her Grand- 
son, M. Paul de Remusat, Senator. Translated by Mrs. Cashel 
Hoey and and Mr. John Lillie. 4th Edition, cloth extra. This 
work was written by Madame de Remusat during the time she 
was living on the most intimate terms with the Empress Josephine, 
and is full of revelations respecting the private life of Bonaparte, and 
of men and politics of the first years of the century. Revelations 
which have already created a great sensation in Paris. 8vo, 2 vols. 32^. 

Men of Mark : a Gallery of Co?itempomry Portraits of the most 
Eminent Men of the Day taken from Life, especially for this publica- 
tion, price is. 6d. monthly. Vols. L, II. , III., and IV., handsomely 
bound, cloth, gilt edges, 2$s. each. 

Michael Strogoff. \os. 6d. and $s. See Verne, 

Mitford (Miss). See " Our Village." 

Montaigne's Essays. See " Gentle Life Series." 

My Brother Jack ; or, The Sto?y of Whatdyecallem. Written 
by Himself. From the French of Alphonse Daudet. Illustrated 
by P. PHiLirpoTEAUX. Imperial i6mo, cloth extra, gilt edges, ys. 6d. ; 
plainer binding, 5^. 

My Lady Greenslecves. By Helen Mathers, Authoress of 
" Comin' through the Rye," " Cherry Ripe," &c. 1 vol. edition, 
crown Svo, cloth, 6s. 

List of Publications. 2 1 

My Rambles in the New World. By Lucien Biart, Author of 
"The Adventures of a Young Naturalist." Numerous full-page 
Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth extra, gilt edges, Js. 6d. ; plainer 
binding, 5^. 

Mysterious Island. By Jules Verne. 3 vols., imperial i6mo. 

150 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 3^. 6d. each ; elaborately bound, gilt 
edges, Js. 6d. each. Cheap Edition, with some of the Illustrations, 
cloth, gilt, 2s. ; paper, is. each. 

AT ARES {Sir G. S., K. C.B) Narrative of a Voyage to the 
** V Polar Sea during 1875-76, in H.M.'s Ships " Alert " and " Discovery." 
By Captain Sir G. S. Nares, R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. Published by per- 
mission of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. With Notes on 
the Natural History, edited by H. W. Feilden, F.G.S., C.M.2.S., 
F.R.G.S., Naturalist to the Expedition. Two Volumes, demy8vo, with 
numerous Woodcut Illustrations, Photographs, &c. 4th Edition, 2/. 2s. 

National Music of the World. By the late Henry F. Chor- 
ley. Edited by H. G. Hewlett. Crown 8vo, cloth, $s. 6d. 

" What I have to offer are not a few impressions, scrambled together in the haste 
of the moment, but are the result of many years of comparison and experience." — 
From the Author s "Prelude." 

New Child s Play (A). Sixteen Drawings by E. V. B. Beauti- 
fully printed in colours, 4to, cloth extra, 1 2s. 6d. 

New Guinea {A Few Months in). By Octavius C. Stone, 
F.R.G.S. With numerous Illustrations from the Author's own 
Drawings. Crown 8vo, cloth, 12s. 

New Ireland. By A. M. Sullivan, M.P. for Louth. 2 vols., 
demy 8vo, 30J. Cheaper Edition, 1 vol., crown 8vo, $s. 6d. 

New Novels. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. per vol. : — 

Mary Anerley. By R. D. Blackmore, Author of " Lorna Doone," 

&c. 3 vols. 
The Sisters. By G. Ebers, Author of "An Egyptian Princess. " 

2 vols., i6mo, 2s. each. 
Countess Daphne. By Rita, Authoress of ".Vivienne " and " Like 

Dian's Kiss." 3 vols. 
Sunrise. By W. Black. In 15 Monthly Parts, is. each. 
Wait a Year. By Harriet Bowra, Authoress of "A Young 

Wife's Story." 3 vols. 
Sarah de Berangrer. By Jean Ingelow. 3 vols. 
The Braes of Yarrow. By C. Gibbon. 3 vols. 
Elaine's Story. By Maud Sheridan. 2 vols. 
Prince Fortune and His Friends. 3 vols. 

22 Sampson Low, Marslon, 6° Co.'s 

Noble Words and Noble Deeds. Translated from the French of 
E. Muller, by Dora Leigh. Containing many Full-page Illustra- 
tions by Philippoteaux. Square imperial i6mo, cloth extra, Js. 6d. 

North American Review {The). Monthly, price 2s. 6d. 

Notes on Fish and Fishing. By the Rev. J. J. Man ley, M.A. 
With Illustrations, crown 8vo, cloth extra, leatherette binding, iar. 6d. 

Nursery Playmates {Prince of ). 217 Coloured pictures for 
Children by eminent Artists. Folio, in coloured boards, 6s. 

riBERAMMERGAU Passion Play. See "Art in the 

^ Mountains." 

Ocean to Ocea?i ; Sandford Flemings Expedition through 
Canada in 1872. By the Rev. George M. Grant. With Illustra- 
tions. Revised and enlarged Edition, crown 8vo, cloth, Js. 6d. 

Old-Fashioned Girl. See Alcott. 

Oliphant {Mrs.) Innocent. A Tale of Modern Life. By Mrs. 
Oliphant, Author of "The Chronicles of Carlingford," &c, &c. 
With Eight Full-page Illustrations, small post 8vo, cloth extra, 6s. 

On Horseback through Asia Minor. By Capt Fred Bur nab y, 
Royal Horse Guards, Author of "A Ride to Khiva." 2 vols., 
8vo, with three Maps and Portrait of Author, 6th Edition, 38^. ; 
Cheaper Edition, crown 8vo, \os. 6d. 

Our Little Ones in Heaven. Edited by the Rev. H. Robbins. 
With Frontispiece after Sir Joshua Reynolds. Fcap., cloth extra, 
New Edition — the 3rd, with Illustrations, $s. 

Our Village. By Mary Russell Mitford. Illustrated with 

Frontispiece Steel Engraving, and 12 full-page and 157 smaller Cuts 
of Figure Subjects and Scenes. Crown 410, cloth, gilt edges, 2ix. 

Our Woodland Trees. By F. G. Heath. Large post 8vo, 
cloth, gilt edges, uniform with "Fern World " and " Fern Paradise/* 
by the same Author. 8 Coloured Plates (showing leaves of every 
British Tree) and 20 Woodcuts, cloth, gilt edges, \2s. 6d. Third 

"The book, as a whole, meets a distinct need ; its engravings are excellent, its 
coloured leaves and leaflets singularly accurate, and both author and engraver 
appear to have been animated by a kindred love of their subject." — Saturday 

List of Publications. 2 3 

pAINTERS of All Schools. By Louis Viardot, and other 

-^ Writers. 500 pp., super-royal 8vo, 20 Full-page and 70 smaller 
Engravings, cloth extra, 25 j. A New Edition is issued in Half- 
crown parts, with fifty additional portraits, cloth, gilt edges, 31^. 6d. 

Palliser (Mrs. ) A History of Lace, from the Earliest Period. 
A New and Revised Edition, with additional cuts and text, upwards 
of 100 Illustrations and coloured Designs. 1 vol. 8vo, li. is. 

" One of the most readable books of the season ; permanently valuable, always in- 
teresting, often amusing, and not inferior in all the essentials of a gift book." — Times. 

■ Historic Devices, Badges, and War Cries. 8vo, 1/. is, 

■ — The China Collector's Pocket Companion. With up- 
wards of 1000 Illustrations of Marks and Monograms. 2nd Edition, 
with Additions. Small post 8vo, limp cloth, $s. 

Petites Lemons de Conversation ei de Grammaire : Oral and 
Conversational Method ; being Lessons introducing the most Useful 
Topics of Conversation, upon an entirely new principle, &o By 
F. Julien, French Master at King Edward the Sixth's School, 
Birmingham. Author of "The Student's French Examiner, " "First 
Steps in Conversational French Grammar," which see. 

Phillips (L.) Dictionary of Biographical Reference. 8vo, 
1/. 1 1 j. 6d. 

Photography (History and Handbook of). See Tissandier. 

Physical Treatise on Electricity and Afagnetism. By J. E. H. 
Gordon, B.A. With about 200 coloured, full-page, and other 
Illustrations. Among the newer portions of the work may be 
enumerated : All the more recent investigations on Stride by Spottis- 
woode, De la Rue, Moulton, &c. An account of Mr. Crooke's recent 
researches. Full descriptions and pictures of all the modern Magnetic 
Survey Instruments now used at Kew Observatory. Full accounts of 
all the modern work on Specific Inductive Capacity, and of the more 
recent determination of the ratio of Electric units (v). It is believed 
that in respect to the number and beauty of the Illustrations, the work 
will be quite unique. 2 vols., 8vo, 36^. 

Picture Gallery of British Art (The). 38 Permanent Photo- 
graphs after the most celebrated English Painters. With Descriptive 
Letterpress. Vols. 1 to 5, cloth extra, i8.r. each. Vols. 6, 7, and 8, 
commencing New Series, demy folio, 3U. 6d. 

Pinto {Major Serpa), See " King's Rifle." 

Placita A/iglo-rVormannica. 77ie Procedure and Constitutio?i of 
the Anglo-Norman Courts (William I. — Richard I.), as shown by 
Contemporaneous Records. With Explanatory Notes, &c. By M. M. 
Bigelow. Demy 8vo, cloth, 21s. 

24 Sampson Low, Mars ton, <5* Co.'s 

Plutarch's Lives. An Entirely New and Library Edition. 
Edited by A. H. Clough, Esq. 5 vols., 8vo, 2/. iar.; half-morocco, 
gilt top, 3/. Also in I vol., royal 8vo, 800 pp., cloth extra, i8j-. ; 
half-bound, lis. 

Morals. Uniform with Clough's Edition of " Lives of 

Plutarch." Edited by Professor Goodwin. 5 vols., 8vo, 3/. 3J. 

Poems of the Lnner Life. A New Edition, Revised, with many 
additional Poems. Small post 8vo, cloth, $s. 

Poganuc People: their Loves and Lives. By Mrs. Beecher 
Stowe. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. 

Polar Expeditions. See Koldewey, Markham, MacGahan, 
and Nares. 

Practical (A) Handbook to the Principal Schools of England. 
By C. E. Pascoe. New Edition, crown 8vo, cloth extra, ^s. 6d. 

Prejevalsky (N. M.) From LCulja, across the Tian Shan to Lob- 
noi*. Translated by E. Delmar Morgan, F.R.G.S. Demy 8vo, 
with a Map. i6j". 

Prince Ritto ; or, The Four-leaved Shamrock. By Fanny W. 
Currey. With 10 Full-page Fac-simile Reproductions of Original 
Drawings by Helen O'Hara. Demy 4to, cloth extra, gilt, \os. 6d. 

Publishers 7 Circular (The), and General Record of British and 
Foreign Literature. Published on the 1st and 15th of every Month, 3^. 

IDA MB A UD (Alfred). History of Russia, from its Origin 
■**• to the Year 1877. With Six Maps. Translated by Mrs. L.. B. 
Lang. 2 vols., demy 8vo, cloth extra, 38J. 

Recollections of Writers. By Charles and Mary Cowden 
Clarke. Authors of " The Concordance to Shakespeare," &c. ; 
with Letters of Charles Lamb, Leigh Hunt, Douglas Jerrold, 
and Charles Dickens ; and a Preface by Mary Cowden Clarke. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, iar. 6d. 

Reminiscences of the War in New Zealand. By Thomas W. 
Gudgeon, Lieutenant and Quartermaster, Colonial Forces, N.Z. 
With Twelve Portraits. Crown 8vo, cloth extra, ior. 6d. 

Remusat (Madame de). See " Memoirs of." 

Robinson (Phil). See " In my Indian Garden." 

Rochefoucauld s Reflections. Bayard Series. 2s. 6d. 

List of Publications. 2 5 

Rogers (S.) Pleasures of Memory. See " Choice Editions of 
Choice Books." 2s. 6d. 

Pose in Bloom. See Alcott. 

Pose Library {The). Popular Literature of all countries. Each 
volume, is. ; cloth, 2s. 6d. Many of the Volumes are Illustrated — 

1. Sea-Gull Rock. By Jules Sandeau. Illustrated. 

2. Little Women. By Louisa M. Alcott. 

3. Little Women Wedded. Forming a Sequel to "Little Women." 

4. The House on Wheels. By Madame de Stolz. Illustrated. 

5. Little Men. By Louisa M. Alcott. Dble.vol., 2s. ; cloth, 3s. 6d. 

6. The Old-Fashioned Girl. By Louisa M. Alcott. Double 

vol., 2s. ; cloth, 3^. 6d. 

7. The Mistress of the Manse. By J. G. Holland. 

8. Timothy Titcomb's Letters to Young: People, Single and 


9. Undine, and the Two Captains. By Baron De La Motte 

Fouque. A New Translation by F. E. Bunnett. Illustrated. 

10. Draxy Miller's Dowry, and the Elder's Wife. By Saxe 


11. The Four Gold Pieces. By Madame Gouraud. Numerous 


12. Work. A Story of Experience. First Portion. By Louisa M. 


13. Beginning: Again. Being a Continuation of "Work." By 

Louisa M. Alcott. 

14. Picciola; or, the Prison Flower. By X. B. Saintine. 

Numerous Graphic Illustrations. 

15. Robert's Holidays. Illustrated. 

16. The Two Children of St. Domingro. Numerous Illustrations. 

17. Aunt Jo's Scrap Bag-. 

18. Stowe (Mrs. H, B.) The Pearl of Orr's Island, 
19. The Minister's Wooing-. 

20. Betty's Brig-ht Idea. 

21. ■ The Ghost in the Mill. 

22. Captain Kidd's Money. 

23. We and our Neighbours. Double vol., 2s. 

24. My Wife and I. Double vol., 2s. ; cloth, gilt, 3^. 6d. 

25. Hans Brinker ; or, the Silver Skates. 

26. Lowell's My Study Window. 

27. Holmes (O. W.) The Guardian Ang*eL 

28. Warner (C. D.) My Summer in a Garden. 

26 Sampson Lozv, Mars ion, 6^ Co.'s 

The Rose Library, continued: — 

29. Hitherto. By the Author of " The Gayworthys." 2 vols. , is. each. 

30. Helen's Babies. By their Latest Victim. 

31. The Barton Experiment. By the Author of " Helen's Babies." 

32. Dred. By Mrs. Beecher Stowe. Double vol., 2s. Cloth, 

gilt, $s. 6d. 

33. "Warner (C. D.) In the Wilderness. 

34. Six to One. A Seaside Story. 

Russell (W. II, LL.D.) 77ie Tour of the Prince of Wales in 
India. By W. H. Russell, LL.D. Fully Illustrated by Sydney 
P. Hall, M.A. Super-royal 8vo, cloth extra, gilt edges, 52^. 6d.; 
Large Paper Edition, 84J. 

(^AJVCTA Christina: a Story of the First Century. By 
^ Eleanor E. Oklebar. With a Preface by the Bishop of Winchester. 
Small post 8vo, cloth extra, 5^. 

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